TABLE 2

Effect of high-fat diet and choline deficiency on body weight, fat depot size, and plasma biochemistry

LoCSLoCDHiCSHiCD
Total wt gain (g)3.77 ± 0.762.97 ± 0.459.0 ± 0.99*8.15 ± 0.99
Adipose depot sizes (% body wt)
    Subcutaneous1.0 ± 0.10.8 ± 0.11.7 ± 0.2*1.6 ± 0.1
    Epididymal1.9 ± 0.21.4 ± 0.14.2 ± 0.34.3 ± 0.2
    Intraabdominal1.3 ± 0.11.1 ± 0.12.4 ± 0.22.4 ± 0.1
Liver wt (g)4.0 ± 0.44.1 ± 0.54.2 ± 0.24.0 ± 0.3
Liver triglyceride (μmol/g)13.4 ± 2.631.6 ± 7.236.8 ± 4.8*59.5 ± 2.1§
Nonfasting plasma results
    Glucose (mmol/l)7.9 ± 0.97.8 ± 0.48.9 ± 0.68.4 ± 0.5
    Insulin (pmol/l)301 ± 11241 ± 47983 ± 18433 ± 36§
    Triglycerides (mmol/l)0.8 ± 0.20.5 ± 0.01.1 ± 0.21.0 ± 0.2
    Free fatty acids (mmol/l)0.8 ± 0.10.7 ± 0.20.9 ± 0.21.0 ± 0.1
Fasting plasma results
    Glucose (mmol/l)6.1 ± 0.25.6 ± 0.37.5 ± 0.3*6.8 ± 0.2
    Insulin (pmol/l)26.9 ± 3.723.4 ± 1.8337.6 ± 71116.2 ± 17.4§
    Triglycerides (mmol/l)0.7 ± 0.10.4 ± 0.20.8 ± 0.20.8 ± 0.1
    Free fatty acids (mmol/l)1.4 ± 0.11.4 ± 0.31.9 ± 0.22.1 ± 0.2
    Glucose tolerance test AUCgl (min · mmol−1 · l−1)622.7 ± 33.6603.0 ± 56.0861.4 ± 26.8691.4 ± 14.0§
  • Data are means ± SE. Data were compared by two-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey’s test.

  • P < 0.05,

  • *

    * P < 0.01,

  • P < 0.001 for low-fat (Lo), choline-supplemented (CS) diet vs. high-fat (Hi), choline-supplemented diet;

  • §

    § P < 0.01 for high-fat, choline-supplemented diet vs. high-fat CDD (HiCD);

  • P < 0.05 for LoCS vs. low-fat CDD (LoCD).