TABLE 1

Examples of metabolic techniques used to correlate quantified β-cell mass with results of metabolic tests

TestSpeciesMetabolic measurementInsulin responseRef.
IV injections of arginine and glucose90% pancreatectomized ratAIRgluc and AIRargBoth significantly reduced, AIRgluc > AIRarg: P < 0.005 vs. P < 0.05Bonner-Weir et al. (8)
IV injections of arginine and glucose and GPAIS64% pancreatectomized dogAIRgluc, AIRarg, and AIRargMaxAIRarg but not AIRgluc significantly reduced; AIRargMax most significantly reduced: P = 0.0002 vs. P = 0.02Ward et al. (9)
IV injections of arginine and glucose and GPAISStreptozocin-administered baboonAIRgluc, AIRarg, and AIRargMaxCorrelation coefficients with β-cell mass: AIRgluc r = 0.63, P < 0.02; AIRarg r = 0.29, P = NS; AIRargMax r = 0.58, P < 0.02McCulloch et al. (10)
IV injections of arginine and glucoseStreptozocin-administered rat given various numbers of transplanted isletsAIRgluc, AIRarg, and AIRargMaxCorrelation coefficients with islet transplant number: AIRgluc r = 0.66, P < 0.0001; AIRarg P = NS; AIRargMax: P = NSTobin et al. (11)
IV injections of arginine and glucose and GPAISStreptozocin- and nicotinamide-administered minipigAIRgluc, AIRarg, and AIRargMaxCorrelation coefficients with β-cell mass: AIRgluc r = 0.82, P < 0.0001; AIRarg r = 0.76, P < 0.001; AIRargMax r = 0.88, P < 0.0001Larsen et al. (12)
IV injections of arginine and glucose and GPAISHemipancreatectomy in nondiabetic humansAIRgluc, AIRarg, and AIRargMaxAIRgluc (P < 0.05) but not AIRarg significantly reduced, and AIRargMax most significantly reduced (P < 0.001).Seaquist and Robertson (13)
IV injections of arginine and glucose and GPAISPancreatectomized humans given auto-islet transplantsAIRgluc, AIRarg, and AIRargMaxCorrelation coefficients with islet mass: AIRgluc r = 0.84, P < 0.01; AIRarg r = 0.65, P < 0.05; AIRargMax r = 0.81, P < 0.01Teuscher et al. (14)
IV injections of arginine and glucoseType 1 diabetic humans given alloislet transplantsAUCgluc and AIRargCorrelation coefficients with islet mass: AUCgluc r = 0.50, P < 0.01; AIRarg r = 0.79, P < 0.01Ryan et al. (15)
  • AUCgluc, area under the curve following intravenous glucose; IV, intravenous.