TABLE 1

Clinical characteristics of the participants

Control subjects
Case subjects
P value*
FinnishSwedishFinnish + SwedishFinnishSwedishFinnish + Swedish
n358197555805150955
Age (years)41.3 ± 9.443.8 ± 11.442.2 ± 10.238.7 ± 9.248.7 ± 10.240.3 ± 10.00.001
Age at diabetes onset (years)12.9 ± 7.512.9 ± 7.812.9 ± 7.611.5 ± 6.512.7 ± 7.711.7 ± 6.70.003
Diabetes duration (years)27.4 (20–51)30.0 (20–57)28.0 (20–57)27.3 (5–47)35.0 (11–65)28.0 (5–65)0.048
Duration to diabetic nephropathy onset (years)17 (5–39)19 (5–59)18 (5–59)
A1C (% of normal limit)134.5 ± 19.8141.9 ± 22.1136.8 ± 20.9148.0 ± 25.3146.7 ± 26.7147.8 ± 25.5<0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)130.3 ± 15.2127.0 ± 15.3129.3 ± 15.3144.2 ± 20.8141.9 ± 18.6143.9 ± 20.5<0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)77.4 ± 8.573.1 ± 7.076.2 ± 8.384.1 ± 10.979.3 ± 10.683.4 ± 11.0<0.001
Smoking, never/ever (%)61.6/38.451.1/48.958.6/41.441.4/58.642.0/58.041.5/58.5<0.001
Male/female (%)39.1/60.944.7/55.341.1/58.958.9/41.150.7/49.357.6/42.4<0.001
  • Data are given as means ± SD or median (range).

  • *

    * P values for differences between Finnish + Swedish control subjects and Finnish + Swedish case subjects.