Combined analysis of the effects of smoking and rs4880 genotype

Val/Val genotypeEver smokedP valueOR (95% CI)
1.00 (Ref.)
+<0.0011.77 (1.35–2.33)
+0.3341.21 (0.82–1.77)
++<0.0012.58 (1.73–3.84)
  • No diabetic nephropathy control subjects versus diabetic nephropathy case subjects in a multivariate logistic regression analysis with patients stratified according to smoking status and genotype, adjusted for age at diabetes onset, diabetes duration, A1C, and sex. Patients that never smoked, without the rs4880 Val/Val genotype, were considered as referent (Ref.) group. The combined effect was 0.60, which does not indicate departure from additivity.