TABLE 1

Metabolic and plasma parameters in 6-h fasting PPAR-α null and wild-type mice

Wild type
PPAR-α null
ControlSafflower oilFish oilControlSafflower oilFish oil
Plasma metabolites
    Glucose (mmol/l)8.0 ± 0.39.3 ± 0.4*9.1 ± 0.36.8 ± 0.59.0 ± 0.58.0 ± 0.4*§
    Triacylglycerol (mmol/l)0.52 ± 0.040.47 ± 0.050.40 ± 0.060.67 ± 0.050.58 ± 0.050.46 ± 0.03§
    Nonesterified fatty acid (mmol/l)0.46 ± 0.060.46 ± 0.080.44 ± 0.050.48 ± 0.040.40 ± 0.030.40 ± 0.06
    β-Hydroxybutyrate (mg/dl)7.6 ± 1.78.8 ± 1.37.0 ± 1.52.4 ± 0.34.0 ± 0.23.5 ± 0.3
Plasma hormones and adipocyte cytokines
    Insulin (μU/ml)16.7 ± 1.824.5 ± 5.2*21.8 ± 2.330.6 ± 2.730.0 ± 3.025.7 ± 1.8
    Leptin (ng/ml)9.5 ± 0.913.1 ± 1.214.3 ± 1.0*14.5 ± 1.522.2 ± 2.421.9 ± 1.6
    Adiponectin (μg/ml)7.7 ± 0.47.7 ± 0.611.9 ± 0.7#6.4 ± 0.37.88 ± 0.831.0 ± 2.8**
Metabolic parameters
    Calorie intake (kcal · g body wt−1 · day−1)0.48 ± 0.010.52 ± 0.01*0.53 ± 0.01*0.52 ± 0.010.55 ± 0.01*0.54 ± 0.01
    Initial body weight (g)24.5 ± 0.424.4 ± 0.424.0 ± 0.324.3 ± 0.523.3 ± 0.423.6 ± 0.4
    Body weight gain (g/day)0.24 ± 0.020.29 ± 0.030.27 ± 0.030.26 ± 0.030.39 ± 0.04*0.35 ± 0.03
    Initial whole-body fat content (% body wt)13.6 ± 1.112.4 ± 1.313.7 ± 1.614.4 ± 0.915.4 ± 1.015.8 ± 0.9
    Whole-body fat gain (% body wt day 0–12)7.6 ± 0.511.0 ± 0.711.2 ± 1.38.3 ± 1.015.4 ± 0.713.5 ± 0.7
    Rectal body temperature (°C)36.1 ± 0.236.3 ± 0.336.6 ± 0.336.2 ± 0.236.5 ± 0.235.3 ± 0.6
  • Data are the means ± SE of 14–31 mice per group or 6–9 for body fat gain and rectal body temperature. In male PPAR-α null and wild-type mice, metabolic parameters were obtained during and plasma parameters at the end of 2 weeks’ dietary treatment with either control diet or isocaloric high-fat diets containing 27% safflower oil without or with an 8% fish oil replacement. Plasma parameters and rectal body temperatures were determined in 6-h food-deprived mice.

  • *

    * P < 0.05 vs. genotype control;

  • P < 0.05 vs. wild-type control;

  • P < 0.005 vs. genotype control;

  • §

    § P < 0.05 vs. genotype safflower;

  • P < 0.005 vs. wild-type control;

  • P < 0.0001 vs. genotype control;

  • #

    # P < 0.005 vs. genotype safflower;

  • **

    ** P < 0.0001 vs. genotype safflower.