TABLE 3

Liver weight and hepatic lipid metabolite profile of PPAR-α null and wild-type mice

Wild type
PPAR-α null
ControlSafflower oilFish oilControlSafflower oilFish oil
Liver weight (% body wt)3.26 ± 0.093.47 ± 0.083.47 ± 0.103.40 ± 0.144.47 ± 0.14*3.93 ± 0.09
Liver triacylglycerol (mmol/g)6.24 ± 1.3323.22 ± 5.7613.44 ± 2.3723.12 ± 4.24§85.47 ± 5.91*51.39 ± 6.11
Liver acyl-CoA species (all measured species)
Total very-long-chain acyl-CoA (nmol/g)6.23 ± 0.878.70 ± 1.8615.26 ± 2.306.12 ± 1.0415.48 ± 4.5810.88 ± 2.86
    C16:0 (nmol/g)12.06 ± 1.548.89 ± 1.159.90 ± 1.3514.30 ± 3.057.75 ± 1.634.88 ± 0.55
    C16:1 (nmol/g)10.17 ± 1.455.27 ± 1.105.51 ± 0.9411.64 ± 2.624.31 ± 1.152.22 ± 0.42
    C18:0 (nmol/g)11.59 ± 1.5512.45 ± 1.7211.45 ± 1.1214.55 ± 1.7213.21 ± 2.426.96 ± 0.91
    C18:1 (nmol/g)22.83 ± 4.1620.76 ± 2.3717.92 ± 1.9530.27 ± 3.0926.86 ± 4.3312.66 ± 1.62
    C18:2n-6 (nmol/g)19.83 ± 1.6846.18 ± 7.0338.30 ± 2.13*21.78 ± 1.7461.74 ± 17.9826.17 ± 5.21
    C18:3n-3 (nmol/g)6.02 ± 0.576.21 ± 0.878.33 ± 1.247.83 ± 0.716.75 ± 1.094.03 ± 0.64
    C20:0 (nmol/g)1.16 ± 0.251.24 ± 0.111.55 ± 0.321.31 ± 0.371.50 ± 0.360.75 ± 0.13
    C20:5n-3 (nmol/g)2.91 ± 0.435.07 ± 1.2210.32 ± 1.433.38 ± 0.5912.25 ± 4.066.99 ± 1.65
    C22:0 (nmol/g)0.25 ± 0.030.44 ± 0.060.53 ± 0.160.36 ± 0.170.33 ± 0.100.28 ± 0.06
    C22:6n-3 (nmol/g)2.78 ± 0.283.07 ± 0.485.11 ± 0.381.82 ± 0.10§3.89 ± 1.255.47 ± 1.32
    C24:0 (nmol/g)0.07 ± 0.010.16 ± 0.050.16 ± 0.010.07 ± 0.020.12 ± 0.020.14 ± 0.03
    C26:0 (nmol/g)0.01 ± 0.010.08 ± 0.030.16 ± 0.050.05 ± 0.020.09 ± 0.020.02 ± 0.01
Liver diacylglycerol species (selected species)
    C16:0-C16:0 (μmol/g)0.48 ± 0.240.97 ± 0.330.65 ± 0.300.65 ± 0.401.02 ± 0.512.34 ± 0.92
    C18:0-C18:0 (μmol/g)0.32 ± 0.073.39 ± 1.371.79 ± 0.951.45 ± 1.112.55 ± 1.385.92 ± 2.58
    C18:1-C18:1 (μmol/g)1.06 ± 0.310.37 ± 0.170.29 ± 0.071.08 ± 0.260.83 ± 0.232.26 ± 0.46
    C18:1-C18:2 (μmol/g)0.64 ± 0.140.77 ± 0.310.51 ± 0.111.09 ± 0.182.87 ± 0.724.88 ± 1.07
    C18:2-C18:2 (μmol/g)0.47 ± 0.091.87 ± 0.861.03 ± 0.191.05 ± 0.18§9.25 ± 2.109.80 ± 2.94
    C18:2-C20:4 (μmol/g)0.03 ± 0.010.07 ± 0.020.03 ± 0.010.06 ± 0.010.29 ± 0.050.27 ± 0.05
    C18:2-C22:6 (μmol/g)0.06 ± 0.020.07 ± 0.040.16 ± 0.030.15 ± 0.03§0.24 ± 0.042.63 ± 1.07
    C18:2-C20:5 (μmol/g)0.07 ± 0.020.11 ± 0.030.09 ± 0.020.11 ± 0.030.18 ± 0.020.83 ± 0.18
    C20:5-C20:5 (μmol/g)0.13 ± 0.030.13 ± 0.040.22 ± 0.050.17 ± 0.030.27 ± 0.030.66 ± 0.19
    C20:5-C20:6 (μmol/g)0.05 ± 0.020.05 ± 0.020.05 ± 0.010.09 ± 0.020.17 ± 0.020.32 ± 0.09
  • Data are the means ± SE of four to seven mice per group. Male PPAR-α null and wild-type mice were fed either a control diet or isocaloric high-fat diets containing 27% safflower oil without or with an 8% fish oil replacement for 2 weeks. The 6-h food-deprived mice were anesthetized, livers freeze-clamped in situ, and lipid metabolites extracted for LC/MS/MS analysis of acyl-CoA, diacylglycerol, and triacylglycerol analysis.

  • *

    * P < 0.0001,

  • P < 0.05 vs. control genotype;

  • P < 0.05 vs. safflower genotype;

  • §

    § P < 0.05 vs. wild-type control;

  • P < 0.005 vs. control genotype.