TABLE 1

Clinical characteristics of the genotyped individuals stratified by proband and diabetic nephropathy status

Diabetic nephropathy probandsDiabetic nephropathy relativesDiabetes without nephropathy relatives
n349390147
Male169 (46.0)180 (46.2)43 (29.3)
Age (years)57 ± 10.756 ± 11.459 ± 10.0
BMI (kg/m2)30 ± 7.232 ± 8.632 ± 7.3
Ethnicity
    European American50 (14.3)42 (10.8)27 (18.4)
    African American90 (25.8)95 (24.4)33 (22.4)
    Mexican American179 (51.3)210 (53.8)80 (54.4)
    American Indian30 (8.6)43 (11.0)7 (4.8)
ESRD282 (80.8)*53 (13.6)0 (0.0)
Diabetes
    Age diagnosed (years)34 ± 12.341 ± 13.142 ± 11.5
    Duration (years)23 ± 8.416 ± 10.117 ± 7.0
Biochemistry
    A1C (%)7.8 ± 1.88.6 ± 2.47.8 ± 2.0
    Serum creatinine (mg/dl)8.58 ± 3.022.6 ± 3.20.99 ± 0.16
    Blood urea nitrogen (mg/dl)72.9 ± 7.229.9 ± 25.515.7 ± 4.9
    Urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (g/g)3.29 ± 0.691.38 ± 1.40.17 ± 0.26
    Urine ACR (g/g)
        Mean2.75 ± 0.70.93 ± 1.20.01 ± 0.01
        Median3 (3–3)0.1 (0.05–0.8)0.009 (0.006–0.01)
    GFR (ml/min per 1.73 m2)
        Mean10.6 ± 15.068.5 ± 42.085.6 ± 24.5
        Median5 (5–5)76.2 (47.4–98.0)89.8 (73.9–105.1)
  • Data are n (%), means ± SD, or median (interquartile range).

  • *

    * Three probands are not on dialysis and have no urine results but were classified as ESRD for the analyses;

  • laboratory values in participants with ESRD (either on dialysis or after renal transplant) were set to: serum creatinine 10 mg/dl, blood urea nitrogen 80 mg/dl, protein-to-creatinine ratio 3.5 g/g, ACR 3 g/g, and GFR 5.0 ml/min per 1.73 m2.