TABLE 1

Physiologic parameters emerging from the minimal model (data from refs. 39,42)

Parameters emerging from fitting the minimal modelNormalIGTType 2 diabetes
SGGlucose effectiveness (min−1): This parameter reflects the effect of glucose per se to enhance glucose disposal and suppress glucose output, at basal insulin concentration.0.021 ± 0.0080.016 ± 0.0070.015 ± 0.011
AIRGLUCOSEInsulin response (μU/ml × min): This can be limited to first-phase release (0–10 min above basal) but can also yield second-phase response, depending upon which injection protocol is used59.6 ± 54.842.4 ± 42.66.7 ± 18.5
SIInsulin sensitivity (× 10−4 min−1 per μU/ml): Probably the most important parameter is the insulin sensitivity index (SI). This index reflects to ability of insulin in blood to augment glucose's ability to activate its own disappearance and to suppress glucose output. The SI is quantitative. It is normalized to the size of the glucose distribution volume, making SI values comparable among individuals, between genders, between ethnic groups, and even between species.2.62 ± 2.211.27 ± 1.200.57 ± 0.82
DIDisposition index: The DI is the product of SI and AIRGLUCOSE. It represents the ability of the b-cells to compensate for changes in insulin sensitivity (see text).1,249 ± 1,559430 ± 59430 ± 95
  • IGT, impaired glucose tolerance.