TABLE 2

Serum or plasma concentrations of counterregulatory hormones before and at the end of the hypoglycemic intervals and during the corresponding time interval of the control night in which no hypoglycemia was induced

First half of night
Second half of night
P
HypoglycemiaControlHypoglycemiaControlEarly/lateHypogylcemiaEarly/late* hypoglycemia
Epinephrine (pmol/l)
    Before60 ± 559 ± 362 ± 558 ± 2
    End3,138 ± 92859 ± 31,348 ± 378*61 ± 4
    Δ+3,078 ± 927−1 ± 2+1,286 ± 378+3 ± 30.0480.0020.048
Norepinephrine (nmol/l)
    Before0.96 ± 0.100.98 ± 0.130.71 ± 0.070.84 ± 0.08
    End1.67 ± 0.200.82 ± 0.111.17 ± 0.12*0.78 ± 0.09
    Δ+0.71 ± 0.20−0.16 ± 0.04+0.46 ± 0.10−0.06 ± 0.020.364<0.0010.162
ACTH (pmol/l)
    Before1.9 ± 0.21.7 ± 0.33.3 ± 0.81.7 ± 0.2
    End16.0 ± 5.01.4 ± 0.38.8 ± 2.13.1 ± 0.6
    Δ+14.1 ± 4.9−0.3 ± 0.1+5.5 ± 1.9+1.4 ± 0.60.1720.0040.045
Cortisol (nmol/l)
    Before149 ± 28120 ± 30164 ± 26113 ± 26
    End320 ± 5892 ± 27300 ± 44246 ± 49
    Δ+171 ± 73−28 ± 7+136 ± 40+133 ± 36*0.0960.0750.025
Growth hormone (μg/l)
    Before2.6 ± 0.63.1 ± 0.82.9 ± 1.13.8 ± 1.2
    End8.8 ± 2.35.1 ± 1.32.7 ± 0.9*1.7 ± 0.6
    Δ+6.2 ± 2.2+2.0 ± 1.6−0.2 ± 1.1−2.1 ± 1.00.0170.0100.205
Glucagon (ng/l)
    Before159 ± 14139 ± 14117 ± 11105 ± 9
    End145 ± 11128 ± 11123 ± 9103 ± 9
    Δ−14 ± 7−11 ± 5+6 ± 7+2 ± 40.0840.2690.839
  • Data are means ± SE. P values were derived from ANOVA of Δ values (valueend − valuebefore) including the repeated-measures factors “early/late” for part of the night (early vs. late) and “hypo” for hypoglycemic vs. control night. Early/late* hypoglycemia denotes the interaction term of both factors. In addition, for pairwise comparisons, Student's t test was used, with significant results indicated as follows:

  • *

    * P < 0.005 and

  • P < 0.05 for comparison with respective values of the early night;

  • P < 0.01 for comparison with the values of the early night control condition.