TABLE 3

Substrate kinetics

Control subjectsFirst-degree relativesDiabetic patients
Rd glucose (μmol · kg−1 fat-free mass · min−1)
    Basal12.1 ± 1.014.2 ± 1.817.3 ± 1.3*
    Clamp41.0 ± 3.736.2 ± 3.528.4 ± 2.7*
    Change (Rd clamp–Rd basal)28.9 ± 3.722.1 ± 3.411.2 ± 2.8*
EGP (μmol · kg−1 fat-free mass · min−1)
    Basal11.9 ± 1.011.7 ± 1.416.3 ± 1.1*
    Clamp2.0 ± 1.22.4 ± 1.24.1 ± 1.5
    Change (EGP basal–EGP clamp)9.8 ± 1.59.3 ± 0.912.2 ± 1.5
Carbohydrate oxidation (μmol · kg−1 fat-free mass · min−1)
    Basal8.9 ± 0.511.6 ± 1.910.6 ± 0.9
    Clamp20.6 ± 2.319.6 ± 1.315.3 ± 0.6
    Change (CHO ox clamp–CHO ox basal)11.7 ± 2.58.1 ± 1.54.6 ± 0.8*
NOGD (μmol · kg−1 fat-free mass · min−1)
    Basal2.9 ± 1.32.7 ± 2.26.6 ± 1.6
    Clamp22.6 ± 3.316.4 ± 3.313.2 ± 2.9
    Change (NOGD clamp–NOGD basal)19.7 ± 3.713.7 ± 3.76.5 ± 2.6*
Lipid oxidation (μmol · kg−1 fat-free mass · min−1)
    Basal5.1 ± 0.34.8 ± 0.44.9 ± 0.2
    Clamp3.0 ± 0.32.8 ± 0.43.8 ± 0.2
    Change (lipid ox basal–lipid ox clamp)2.3 ± 0.32.0 ± 0.31.1 ± 0.2*
  • Data are means ± SE. NOGD, nonoxidative glucose disposal.

  • *

    * P < 0.05 between diabetic patients and control subjects. CHOox, carbohydrate oxidation.