TABLE 4

Normalized ex vivo mitochondrial respiration

Control subjectsFirst-degree relativesDiabetic patients
State 3 on malate + glutamate + succinate53.8 ± 5.746.1 ± 4.835.1 ± 1.7*
State 423.0 ± 2.120.1 ± 2.020.8 ± 1.6
State u105.8 ± 9.577.5 ± 11.472.8 ± 6.9*
State 3 on malate + palmitoyl-carnitine + glutamate + succinate60.8 ± 6.955.5 ± 4.642.1 ± 2.8
State 434.4 ± 2.832.2 ± 4.328.6 ± 2.0
State u113.8 ± 14.480.2 ± 6.488.8 ± 9.9
  • Data are means ± SE and are pmol/(s*mg)/(mtDNA copy numbers × 10,000).

  • *

    * P < 0.05 diabetic patients vs. control subjects.