TABLE 3

Measures of glucose tolerance according to genotype at GCKR rs780094 among nondiabetic individuals within the study populations

CountryStudyFasting plasma glucose
HOMA (insulin resistance)
CC (mg/dl)CT (mg/dl)TT (mg/dl)P valueCC (mmol × mU)CT (mmol × mU)TT (mmol × mU)P value
Finland and SwedenDGI101 ± 31 (609)99 ± 32 (675)99 ± 31 (170)0.251.8 ± 1.2 (571)1.8 ± 1.0 (623)1.7 ± 1.0 (161)0.03
SwedenMDC-CC99 ± 9 (2,043)99 ± 9 (2,301)98 ± 17 (610)0.021.8 ± 1.7 (1,982)1.8 ± 1.2 (2,226)1.7 ± 1.2 (592)0.04
SwedenMPP87 ± 9 (3,893)87 ± 8 (4,435)86 ± 8 (1,364)0.00048
SwedenNORDIL102 ± 16 (2,024)102 ± 16 (2,025)99 ± 16 (538)0.004
FinlandBotnia-PPP83 ± 10 (1,383)82 ± 10 (1,526)81 ± 12 (444)0.00022
SpainValencia94 ± 17 (433)92 ± 16 (754)92 ± 19 (359)0.01
U.S.Dallas Heart Study blacks91 ± 13 (1,102)92 ± 16 (414)89 ± 10 (42)0.23
U.S.Dallas Heart Study Hispanics94 ± 10 (222)94 ± 11 (246)92 ± 10 (59)0.22
U.S.Dallas Heart Study whites92 ± 12 (347)91 ± 11 (475)92 ± 13 (148)0.32
U.S.GOLDN99 ± 13 (353)100 ± 14 (492)97 ± 9 (141)0.473.3 ± 2.3 (352)3.4 ± 2.4 (490)3.3 ± 1.9 (141)0.75
U.S.BPRHS104 ± 31 (262)103 ± 18 (218)99 ± 16 (55)0.16
SingaporeSingapore NHS-98 Chinese101 ± 19 (823)99 ± 16 (1,203)98 ± 19 (604)0.0011.9 ± 1.3 (823)1.8 ± 1.3 (1,203)1.7 ± 1.3 (604)0.01
SingaporeSingapore NHS-98 Malays104 ± 25 (256)105 ± 30 (317)101 ± 14 (128)0.402.5 ± 2.5 (256)2.3 ± 2.0 (317)2.3 ± 2.3 (128)0.32
SingaporeSingapore NHS-98 Asian Indians107 ± 33 (298)102 ± 22 (177)106 ± 19 (27)0.223.0 ± 2.7 (298)2.6 ± 2.1 (177)2.5 ± 2.8 (27)0.11
Total: 33,99514,04815,2584,689Meta-analysis P value 7 × 10−144,3285,0901,666Meta-analysis P value 5.0 × 10−5
  • Data are means ± SD (n) or n. Continuous raw measures or blood glucose converted to plasma glucose using a correction factor of 1.13. Association analyses were conducted with an outcome variable of residual log-glucose concentration after adjustment for age and sex. For ease of interpretation, unadjusted glucose concentrations are presented in the table. HOMA insulin resistance index was calculated using the following formula: fasting plasma glucose × fasting insulin/22.5. Two-sided P values are shown for all cohorts. To convert the fasting plasma glucose values to millimoles per liter, multiply by 0.055.