TABLE 2

Differences in energy expenditure and insulin action for each MC4R variant and the combined variants

ControlNT100PR165QPCombinedP
24-h energy expenditure (kcal)2,307 (2,285–2,328)2,175 (2,004–2,345)0.132,148 (1,949–2,346)0.122,163 (2,035–2,291)0.03
Family2,319 (2,297–2,342)2,204 (1,933–2,475)0.402,156 (1,906–2,405)0.202,182 (1,997–2,367)0.14
Sleep energy expenditure (kcal/24 h)1,640 (1,623–1,657)1,584 (1,452–1,715)0.401,466 (1,313–1,619)0.021,534 (1,435–1,635)0.03
Family1,645 (1,628–1,663)1,593 (1,409–1,777)0.581,472 (1,321–1,622)0.021,539 (1,416–1,663)0.09
RMR (kcal/24 h)1,754 (1,736–1,772)1,553 (1,317–1,788)0.091,637 (1,502–1,773)0.541,617 (1,499–1,734)0.02
Family1,765 (1,746–1,784)1,561 (1,470–1,653)<0.00011,646 (1,573–1,719)0.0021,625 (1,560–1,689)<0.0001
M-low (mg/kgEMBS × min)2.49 (2.42–2.56)1.87 (1.39–2.50)0.062.65 (2.15–3.26)0.562.36 (1.99–2.39)0.56
Family2.47 (2.40–2.54)1.85 (1.79–1.90)<0.00012.59 (2.15–3.10)0.622.32 (1.93–2.78)0.48
M-high (mg/kgEMBS × min)8.32 (8.10–8.56)8.24 (6.22–10.93)0.956.84 (5.50–8.51)0.087.34 (6.18–8.82)0.16
Family8.27 (8.02–8.51)8.21 (7.85–8.57)0.796.74 (5.05–8.97)0.187.24 (5.94–8.83)0.19
  • 24-h energy expenditure, sleep energy expenditure, and RMR are adjusted for age, sex, fat mass, and fat-free mass in linear regression models and are presented as least-squares means (95% CI). M-low and M-high are adjusted for age, sex, and percent body fat in linear regression models and are presented as geometric means (95% CI) in parentheses. Second row (labeled as family) for each variable represents general estimating equations adjusted for the same variables accounting for family membership. Control = neither variant, NT100 = A insertion variant, R165Q = G-to-A substitution, combined = NT100 or R165Q. P values are for comparison of NT100, R165Q, or combined variants versus subjects with neither variant. EMBS, estimated metabolic body size.