TABLE 1

Baseline characteristics of anthropometry, plasma biochemistry, liver enzymes, liver fat content, and urinary isoprostanes in the groups after randomization

PlaceboGW590735GW501516Normal range*P (ANOVA)
n666
BMI (kg/m2)32.6 ± 3.830.7 ± 2.730.5 ± 2.3NA0.44
Waist girth (cm)107 ± 10104 ± 6102 ± 6NA0.50
Plasma glucose (mmol/l)4.9 ± 0.15.0 ± 0.45.1 ± 0.54.4–6.00.80
Plasma insulin (mU/l)17 ± 617 ± 615 ± 64–190.83
HOMA-IR3.6 ± 1.23.7 ± 1.63.4 ± 1.50.8–5.10.92
Plasma NEFA (μmol/l)418 ± 192608 ± 172605 ± 84211–9800.09
Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.4 ± 0.41.5 ± 0.71.6 ± 0.40.52–2.690.85
Plasma cholesterol (mmol/l)4.5 ± 0.34.7 ± 0.85.1 ± 0.83.9–7.10.35
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)3.4 ± 0.23.5 ± 0.73.9 ± 0.72.2–5.00.35
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)0.8 ± 0.10.9 ± 0.10.8 ± 0.10.9–2.00.49
Plasma apoB (g/l)0.88 ± 0.090.89 ± 0.100.96 ± 0.050.52–1.230.47
β-OH-butyrate (μmol/l)33 ± 1462 ± 4962 ± 2619–2810.24
Liver fat (%)5.5 ± 2.85.3 ± 4.44.4 ± 1.2NA0.83
Urinary F2-isoprostanes (nmol · l−1 · mmol−1 creatinine)0.38 ± 0.060.31 ± 0.080.35 ± 0.080.11–0.620.28
γ-GT (IU/l)28 ± 1025 ± 630 ± 59–400.58
AST (IU/l)28 ± 527 ± 926 ± 615–400.88
ALT (IU/l)43 ± 1337 ± 1545 ± 1510–500.65
  • Data are means ± SD or ranges unless otherwise indicated. ANOVA describes the overall statistical significance between the groups. The ranges for β-OH-butyrate and urinary isoprostanes are based on subsets (n = 110 and n = 30, respectively). The ranges for the liver enzymes were provided by Richmond Pharmacology (www.richmondpharmacology.com). *5th and 95th percentile of a local healthy population using the same laboratory methods (n = 1,263). NA, not applicable.