TABLE 1

Mean ± SE neuroendocrine, metabolic, and symptom values during the second hour (at the times of the PET scans) of clamped euglycemia and hypoglycemia on day 1 and, after interval interprandial hypoglycemia (∼55 mg/dl [3.0 mmol/l]), on day 2

Euglycemia
Hypoglycemia
Day 1Day 2Day 1Day 2
Insulin (μU/ml)103 ± 593 ± 497 ± 687 ± 6
Glucose (mg/dl)90 ± 191 ± 155 ± 154 ± 1
Glucose infusion rate (mg · kg−1 · min−1)8.7 ± 0.94.4 ± 0.6*6.5 ± 0.65.2 ± 0.8
C-peptide (ng/ml)1.0 ± 0.10.7 ± 0.1c0.4 ± 0.00.4 ± 0.0
Symptom score4.8 ± 1.23.5 ± 0.410.1 ± 1.65.8 ± 0.8
Epinephrine (pg/ml)44 ± 1845 ± 12365 ± 96149 ± 27
Norepinephrine (pg/ml)207 ± 26239 ± 12300 ± 32266 ± 16
Glucagon (pg/ml)77 ± 767 ± 6107 ± 980 ± 7*
Pancreatic polypeptide (pg/ml)67 ± 1265 ± 9553 ± 71100 ± 29
Cortisol (μg/dl)11.8 ± 1.412.0 ± 1.818.0 ± 2.813.1 ± 1.5§
Growth hormone (ng/ml)0.2 ± 0.11.1 ± 0.317.5 ± 1.015.9 ± 2.7
Lactate (mmol/l)1.21 ± 0.130.80 ± 0.111.31 ± 0.130.79 ± 0.09
Nonesterified fatty acids (μmol/l)161 ± 25237 ± 79167 ± 28245 ± 62
  • Data are means ± SD.

  • *

    * P < 0.0001,

  • P < 0.05,

  • P < 0.001,

  • §

    § P < 0.02, and

  • P < 0.01 for day 1 compared with day 2.