TABLE 1

Participant characteristics comparing those who did and did not develop diabetes after 5 years, the Ausdiab Study

Participants who did not develop diabetesParticipants who developed diabetesP
n695108
Sex (% male)295 (42.4)53 (49.1)0.19
Family history of diabetes165 (23.7)33 (33.3)0.04
Hypertension present306 (44.2)59 (55.7)0.08
Hypertension medication142 (20.5)26 (24.5)0.55
Lipid-lowering medication78 (11.2)17 (15.7)0.13
Physical activity (≥150 min)308 (44.6)46 (43.4)0.81
Completed secondary schooling324 (46.7)41 (38.7)0.12
Glucose tolerance status<0.001
    NGT239 (34.4)7 (6.5)
    IGT399 (57.4)92 (85.2)
    IFG57 (8.2)9 (8.3)
Smoking status0.08
    Current60 (8.8)13 (12.4)
    Ex-smoker213 (31.2)41 (39.0)
    Never smoked409 (60.0)51 (48.6)
Retinopathy23 (3.1)5 (4.0)0.64
Age (years)55.9 ± 12.957.7 ± 11.30.17
FPG (mmol/l)5.55 ± 0.555.99 ± 0.59<0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)133.5 ± 18.8136.0 ± 16.80.19
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)70.5 ± 11.574.3 ± 12.40.002
BMI (kg/m2)27.5 ± 5.030.2 ± 6.1<0.001
Waist circumference (cm)92.1 ± 13.298.9 ± 15.2<0.001
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.45 ± 0.391.31 ± 0.460.001
Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.50 ± 1.002.14 ± 1.62<0.001
Microalbumin-to-creatinine ratio (mg/mmol)1.82 ± 6.442.45 ± 9.080.38
Fasting insulin (μ/ml)15.0 ± 9.819.4 ±11.5<0.001
  • Data are n (%) and means ± SD.