TABLE 1

Characteristics of the subjects

Nondiabetic subjectsType 2 diabetic subjects
BeforeAfter
Female/male25/1733/2633/26
African American/Caucasian/Other8/34/012/44/312/44/3
Age (years)54.9 ± 1.260.0 ± 1.0*61.0 ± 1.0
Body weight (kg)94.4 ± 2.295.9 ± 1.486.4 ± 1.3
BMI (kg/m2)32.7 ± 0.433.8 ± 0.430.5 ± 0.5
Body fat (%)37.3 ± 1.135.9 ± 0.931.9 ± 1.1
FFM (kg)59.7 ± 2.161.5 ± 1.358.7 ± 1.2
FM (kg)34.8 ± 1.034.4 ± 0.927.7 ± 1.1
Fasting glucose (mg/dl)99.8 ± 1.3143.4 ± 4.3*125.9 ± 3.7
Fasting FFA (mmol/l)0.58 ± 0.020.69 ± 0.02*0.56 ± 0.02
Fasting insulin (IU/l)10.0 ± 0.913.6 ± 0.8*11.3 ± 1.0
Fasting adiponectin (μg/ml)8.2 ± 0.86.2 ± 0.4*7.9 ± 0.6
Steady-state glucose (mg/dl)104.1 ± 1.1103.2 ± 0.8103.9 ± 0.8
Steady-state FFA (mmol/l)0.013 ± 0.0020.042 ± 0.006*0.014 ± 0.002
Steady-state insulin (IU/l)165.7 ± 7.7152.7 ± 5.7140.3 ± 4.4
Adjusted fasting metabolic rate (Kcal/day)1749 ± 421805 ± 27*1665 ± 23
Adjusted steady-state metabolic rate (Kcal/day)1,802 ± 411,846 ± 271,730 ± 23§
Steady-state GDR (mg · kg FFM−1 · min−1)9.8 ± 0.56.0 ± 0.3*8.6 ± 0.4
Steady-state oxidative GDR (mg · kg FFM−1 · min−1)3.2 ± 0.22.2 ± 0.1*2.9 ± 0.1
Steady-state nonoxidative GDR (mg · kg FFM−1 · min−1)6.6 ± 0.43.6 ± 0.3*5.6 ± 0.3
Metabolic flexibility (ΔRQ)0.10 ± 0.010.06 ± 0.01*0.10 ± 0.01
  • Data are means ± SE. Covariance analysis was used to compare means between nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects, controlling for age, sex, race, and research center. Energy expenditure comparisons were additionally controlled for FFM and FM. Multiple comparisons between groups and time periods (fasting and insulin-stimulated metabolic rates) were adjusted by Tukey-Kramer analysis.

  • * P < 0.05 for comparison between nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects;

  • P < 0.05 for comparison before and after weight loss in type 2 diabetics subjects;

  • § P < 0.05 for comparison between insulin-stimulated and fasting energy expenditure;

  • adjusted energy expenditure for FM and FFM. GDR, glucose disposal rate.