TABLE 1

Characteristics of mothers with type 1 diabetes and their singleton offspring versus control mothers and children

Control mothersMothers with type 1 diabetesP*
n3988
Age (years)28.4 ± 6.030.0 ± 5.00.13
Duration of diabetes (years)13.1 ± 7.9
Parity
    015 (38.5)38 (43)
    119 (49)37 (42)
    >15 (12)13 (15)0.78
Maternal A1C (weeks)
    5–127.8 ± 1.2
    16–246.8 ± 0.9
    26–347.0 ± 1.0
    35–406.7 ± 1.0
Children (male/female)19/2042/460.92
Gestational age at delivery (weeks)40.2 ± 1.237.8 ± 1.4<0.001
Mode of delivery
    Vaginal25 (64)27 (31)
    Elective caesarean section8 (21)35 (40)
    Emergency caesarean section6 (15)26 (30)0.002
Birth weight (kg)
    Male3.77 ± 0.523.81 ± 0.720.05
    Female3.42 ± 0.513.66 ± 0.62<0.001
    Z weight0.37 ± 0.181.78 ± 1.5<0.001
Placental weight (g)641 ± 22.3690 ± 19.00.08
Fetal-to-placental weight ratio5.7 ± 0.145.6 ± 0.110.45
Cord indices
    n3988
    Cord insulin (pmol/l)22.5 (16.6–39.6)99.3 (57–219)<0.001
    Proinsulin (pmol/l)9.3 (6.6–12.6)13.6 (9.9–22.2)<0.001
    Split 32-33 insulin10.6 (6.0–21.1)43.8 (22.5–82.6)<0.001
    Leptin (ng/ml)9.1 (4.3–18.5)29.5 (12.8–54.2)<0.001
    IGF-I (mmol/l)8.13 ± 0.558.0 ± 0.310.56
    Adiponectin (μg/ml)22.2 ± 5.220.0 ± 6.40.068
    Cortisol (nmol/l)399.9 (264.3–531.7)271.1 (195.8–395.0)<0.001
    HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)0.70 ± 0.160.63 ± 0.260.16
    Triglycerides (mmol/l)0.46 (0.38–0.58)0.42 (0.33–0.55)0.15
    Nonesterified fatty acids (mmol/l)0.25 (0.18–0.35)0.17 (0.13–0.23)<0.001
    CRP (mg/l)0.14 (0.12–0.17)0.17 (0.13–0.24)0.002
    ICAM-1 (ng/ml)165.6 (143.0–188.2)179.7 (152.6–201.1)0.07
    IL-6 (pg/ml)7.35 (2.4–12.4)4.0 (2.4–9.3)0.03
    Hematocrit (%)0.51 (0.48–0.54)0.54 (0.49–0.58)0.08
    Platelets (109/l)245 (113–300)229 (185–262)0.42
Offspring anthropometry
    n1740
    Crown rump length (cm)33.7 ± 2.434.9 ± 2.30.079
    Crown heel length (cm)50.3 ± 3.050.9 ± 2.40.43
    Triceps skinfold thickness (mm)5.85 ± 2.47.66 ± 3.20.04
    Subscapular skinfold thickness (mm)5.53 ± 2.17.44 ± 2.20.004
    Total skinfold thickness (mm)11.38 ± 4.215.10 ± 5.00.01
  • Data are means ± SD, n (%), or medians (interquartile range). Unadjusted values are given as means ± SD or medians (interquartile range).

  • *P = value of significance in unpaired t, χ2, or Mann-Whitney test, as appropriate.

  • †Birth weights given as unadjusted P value for difference dependent on maternal diabetes status adjusted for gestational age at delivery.

  • Z weight is SD score compared with standard values for gestational age, sex, and maternal parity. A subset of offspring had detailed anthropometry performed. Cord hormonal profiles of singleton OT1DM vs. control offspring are shown.