TABLE 3

Baseline patient characteristics according to quartiles of A1C variability defined as intrapersonal SD of serial A1C measurements during follow-up

1st2nd3rd4thP valueP value adjusted for age
Patients (n)529541512525
Sex (% male)52.855.051.453.70.690.94
Age (years)38.1 ± 11.637.8 ± 11.736.5 ± 11.733.2 ± 11.4<0.001
Age at onset of diabetes (years)15.5 ± 8.515.0 ± 8.214.2 ± 8.513.2 ± 8.6<0.0010.13
Duration of diabetes (years)22.6 ± 12.322.9 ± 11.622.4 ± 11.520.0 ± 11.8<0.0010.13
BMI (kg/m2)25.0 ± 3.225.0 ± 3.125.2 ± 3.724.9 ± 3.80.440.47
Waist-to-hip ratio, male0.90 ± 0.070.91 ± 0.080.91 ± 0.070.90 ± 0.080.230.22
Waist-to-hip ratio, female0.82 ± 0.060.80 ± 0.060.81 ± 0.060.82 ± 0.070.002<0.001
A1C (%)7.9 ± 1.28.3 ± 1.28.6 ± 1.39.2 ± 1.9<0.001<0.001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)133 ± 17133 ± 17134 ± 19132 ± 190.720.10
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)79 ± 979 ± 1080 ± 1080 ± 100.730.54
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)4.9 ± 0.94.9 ± 0.94.9 ± 0.95.0 ± 1.00.025<0.001
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.30 ± 0.371.31 ± 0.371.32 ± 0.381.26 ± 0.360.0430.19
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)3.06 ± 0.833.02 ± 0.813.06 ± 0.823.12 ± 0.930.250.005
Triglycerides (mmol/l)0.97 (0.73–1.33)1.02 (0.76–1.43)1.01 (0.76–1.45)1.13 (0.85–1.68)<0.001<0.001
Insulin dose (IU/kg)0.69 ± 0.260.71 ± 0.230.72 ± 0.240.78 ± 0.28<0.0010.004
eGDR (mg · kg−1 · min−1)6.6 (4.7–8.9)6.5 (4.4–8.6)6.3 (4.3–8.4)6.0 (3.8–8.2)<0.001<0.001
Ever smoker (%)37.144.147.352.8<0.001<0.001
Current smoker (%)17.521.824.233.1<0.001<0.001
Blue-collar worker (%)60.763.567.976.2<0.001<0.001
Sedentary (%), n = 775*19.519.124.328.90.0870.009
Sedentary (%), n = 53416.014.423.727.70.0260.004
  • Values are expressed as means ± SD, percent, or median (interquartile range).

  • *Patients with available data on physical activity.

  • †Only patients with normal UAER included. Sedentary, leisure-time physical activity <10 MET*h/week.