TABLE 4

Cox regression models for progression in renal status (defined as any increase in albuminuria level or progression to ESRD) and a CVD event (coronary event, stroke, peripheral vascular event) during a median follow-up of 5.7 years

Progression in renal status
CVD event
HR (95% CI)PHR (95% CI)P
Duration of diabetes (years)1.01 (0.99–1.02)0.3561.08 (1.06–1.10)<0.001
Male sex1.74 (1.30–2.33)<0.0011.17 (0.81–1.70)0.399
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)1.01 (1.00–1.02)0.0321.02 (1.01–1.03)0.001
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)1.19 (1.04–1.36)0.0141.11 (0.92–1.34)0.267
Ever smoking1.22 (0.92–1.63)0.1621.00 (0.70–1.43)0.985
Diabetic nephropathyNANA1.78 (1.20–2.64)0.004
CVD eventNANA3.11 (2.10–4.59)<0.001
Number of serial A1C measurements1.09 (0.90–1.31)0.3970.88 (0.71–1.09)0.245
Intrapersonal mean of serial A1C (%)1.34 (1.20–1.51)<0.0011.01 (0.87–1.18)0.892
Intrapersonal SD of serial A1C1.92 (1.49–2.47)<0.0011.98 (1.39–2.82)<0.001
  • Diabetic nephropathy: macroalbuminuria and/or ESRD. Serial A1C represents all available A1C measurements from baseline to follow-up, for which intrapersonal mean and SD were calculated. All other variables are from baseline. NA, not applicable.