TABLE 1

Characteristics of HAPO participants*

Maternal characteristics
    Age (years)19,885 (29.2 ± 5.8)
    Education (years)18,223 (12.9 ± 3.4)
    Pre-pregnant BMI18,200 (23.8 ± 5.0)
    BMI (kg/m2)19,885 (27.5 ± 5.0)
    MAP (mmHg)19,885 (80.7 ± 8.2)
    FPG (mmol/l)19,885 (4.5 ± 0.4)
    1-h Plasma glucose (mmol/l)19,885 (7.5 ± 1.7)
    2-h Plasma glucose (mmol/l)19,885 (6.2 ± 1.3)
    Gestational age (weeks)19,885 (27.8 ± 1.8)
    Ethnicity
        White, non-Hispanic9,189 (46.2)
        Black, non-Hispanic2,279 (11.5)
        Hispanic1,774 (8.9)
        Asian6,181 (31.1)
        Other462 (2.3)
    Prenatal smoking (any)1,217 (6.1)
    Prenatal alcohol use (any)1,272 (6.4)
    Family history of diabetes4,411 (22.2)
    Parity (prior delivery ≥20 weeks)10,408 (52.3)
Newborn characteristics
    Gestational age (weeks)19,885 (39.4 ± 1.6)
    Birth weight (g)19,884 (3,308 ± 505)
    Length (cm)19,496 (49.8 ± 2.4)
    Head circumference (cm)19,723 (34.2 ± 1.5)
    Flank skin fold (mm)17,159 (3.9 ± 1.0)
    Triceps skin fold (mm)17,136 (4.1 ± 0.9)
    Subscapular skin fold (mm)17,115 (4.2 ± 1.0)
    Sum of skin folds (mm)17,100 (12.3 ± 2.6)
    Body fat (%)17,050 (11.3 ± 3.7)
    Cord serum C-peptide (μg/l)19,885 (1.0 ± 0.6)
Male10,235 (51.5)
  • Data are n (mean ± SD) or n (%).

  • *

    * Participants with a cord serum C-peptide measurement.

  • Measured at the OGTT.

  • Babies with gestational age 36–44 weeks at birth.