TABLE 3

Relationship between maternal glucose and percent body fat >90th percentile*

n>90th percentileModel IModel II
FPG (mmol/l)
    <4.23,336208 (6.2)1.001.00
    4.2–4.46,255478 (7.6)1.24 (1.05–1.47)1.16 (0.98–1.38)
    4.5–4.75,174499 (9.6)1.61 (1.36–1.90)1.39 (1.17–1.65)
    4.8–4.92,274295 (13.0)2.24 (1.86–2.70)1.83 (1.51–2.21)
    5.0–5.21,545263 (17.0)3.09 (2.54–3.74)2.36 (1.92–2.89)
    5.3–5.5570101 (17.7)3.24 (2.51–4.19)2.34 (1.79–3.05)
    ≥5.617348 (27.7)5.77 (4.02–8.29)4.29 (2.95–6.24)
    Continuous19,3271,892 (9.8)1.47 (1.41–1.54)1.35 (1.28–1.42)
1-h Plasma glucose (mmol/l)
    ≤5.83,466219 (6.3)1.001.00
    5.9–7.36,230495 (7.9)1.28 (1.09–1.51)1.24 (1.05–1.47)
    7.4–8.65,003495 (9.9)1.63 (1.38–1.92)1.63 (1.37–1.93)
    8.7–9.52,317308 (13.3)2.27 (1.89–2.73)2.30 (1.91–2.78)
    9.6–10.71,563221 (14.1)2.44 (2.00–2.97)2.45 (1.99–3.02)
    10.8–11.7535105 (19.6)3.62 (2.81–4.66)3.75 (2.87–4.88)
    ≥11.821349 (23.0)4.43 (3.13–6.27)4.77 (3.33–6.83)
    Continuous19,3271,892 (9.8)1.42 (1.35–1.48)1.44 (1.37–1.52)
2-h Plasma glucose (mmol/l)
    ≤5.03,521226 (6.4)1.001.00
    5.1–6.06,114522 (8.5)1.36 (1.16–1.60)1.30 (1.10–1.53)
    6.1–6.94,934483 (9.8)1.58 (1.34–1.86)1.54 (1.30–1.83)
    7.0–7.72,551334 (13.1)2.20 (1.84–2.62)2.20 (1.83–2.64)
    7.8–8.71,439197 (13.7)2.31 (1.89–2.83)2.38 (1.93–2.93)
    8.8–9.857588 (15.3)2.63 (2.02–3.43)2.79 (2.13–3.68)
    ≥9.919342 (21.8)4.06 (2.81–5.86)4.42 (3.03–6.47)
    Continuous19,3271,892 (9.8)1.33 (1.27–1.39)1.35 (1.29–1.42)
  • Data are n (%) or OR (95% CI). n = total number in the glucose category (excluding births with gestational age <30 weeks and fetal deaths). Model I, adjusted for the variables used in estimating 90th percentiles; model II, adjusted for age, BMI, BMI2, height, mean arterial blood pressure, gestational age at the OGTT, smoking, alcohol use, hospitalization prior to delivery, and any family history of diabetes.

  • *

    * Defined based on sex, ethnicity, field center, gestational age (36–44 weeks), and parity.

  • Number in the glucose category with percent body fat >90th percentile (% proportion in the glucose category with percent body fat >90th percentile).

  • Glucose higher by 1 SD (0.4 mmol/l for FPG, 1.7 mmol/l for 1-h plasma glucose, 1.3 mmol/l for 2-h plasma glucose).