TABLE 6

Relationship between cord serum C-peptide and individual skin folds

Cord serum C-peptide (μg/l)nNo. with outcomeModel IModel II
Flank skin fold >90th percentile*
    ≤0.52,421135 (5.6)1.001.00
    0.6–0.85,664374 (6.6)1.20 (0.98–1.47)1.12 (0.91–1.37)
    0.9–1.25,167496 (9.6)1.80 (1.48–2.19)1.61 (1.32–1.96)
    1.3–1.51,826267 (14.6)2.90 (2.33–3.60)2.48 (1.99–3.09)
    1.6–2.11,413227 (16.1)3.24 (2.59–4.06)2.70 (2.15–3.39)
    2.2–3.048798 (20.1)4.27 (3.22–5.65)3.39 (2.55–4.51)
    ≥3.118133 (18.2)3.78 (2.49–5.72)3.17 (2.08–4.82)
    Total17,1591,630 (9.5)
Triceps skin fold >90th percentile*
    ≤0.52,422123 (5.1)1.001.00
    0.6–0.85,655405 (7.2)1.44 (1.17–1.77)1.35 (1.10–1.66)
    0.9–1.25,157537 (10.4)2.17 (1.77–2.66)1.94 (1.58–2.38)
    1.3–1.51,825269 (14.7)3.23 (2.59–4.04)2.77 (2.21–3.47)
    1.6–2.11,411237 (16.8)3.77 (3.00–4.74)3.17 (2.51–3.99)
    2.2–3.048596 (19.8)4.61 (3.46–6.15)3.68 (2.75–4.93)
    ≥3.118144 (24.3)6.00 (4.08–8.82)5.12 (3.47–7.56)
    Total17,1361,711 (10.0)
Subscapular skin fold >90th percentile*
    ≤0.52,415109 (4.5)1.001.00
    0.6–0.85,648366 (6.5)1.47 (1.18–1.83)1.35 (1.09–1.69)
    0.9–1.25,151498 (9.7)2.26 (1.83–2.80)1.99 (1.60–2.47)
    1.3–1.51,823269 (14.8)3.66 (2.90–4.62)3.05 (2.41–3.86)
    1.6–2.11,412245 (17.4)4.44 (3.51–5.63)3.60 (2.83–4.58)
    2.2–3.0485101 (20.8)5.56 (4.16–7.45)4.23 (3.14–5.69)
    ≥3.118144 (24.3)6.79 (4.60–10.03)5.54 (3.73–8.23)
    Total17,1151,632 (9.5)
  • Data are n (%) or OR (95% CI). n = total number in the cord C-peptide category (excluding births with gestational age <30 weeks and fetal deaths), No. with outcome = number in the cord C-peptide category with the outcome (% proportion in the cord C-peptide category with the outcome). Model I, adjusted for the variables used in estimating 90th percentiles; model II, adjusted for age, BMI, BMI2, height, mean arterial blood pressure, gestational age at the OGTT, smoking, alcohol use, hospitalization prior to delivery, and any family history of diabetes.

  • *

    * Defined based on sex, ethnicity, field center, gestational age (36–44 weeks), and parity.