TABLE 1

Maternal physiology at day 16.5 of pregnancy

F0 dams
F1 dams
ControlUndernourishedControl female × control maleControl female × undernourished maleUndernourished female × control maleUndernourished female × undernourished male
Blood glucose (mg/dl)99 ± 365 ± 4*111 ± 6103 ± 5105 ± 4108 ± 4
Serum insulin (ng/ml)0.84 ± 0.330.19 ± 0.13*1.6 ± 0.361.7 ± 0.222.0 ± 0.411.4 ± 0.34
Serum leptin (ng/ml)7.2 ± 1.90.42 ± 0.22*32.9 ± 0.634.3 ± 0.538.7 ± 1438.4 ± 6.8
Serum TG (mg/dl)218 ± 2944 ± 27*156 ± 47202 ± 15210 ± 47185 ± 23
Serum glycerol (mg/dl)41.8 ± 5.732.4 ± 5.937 ± 5.155 ± 10.5*59 ± 6.8*51 ± 5.7
Serum FFAs (mmol/l)1.2 ± 0.171.0 ± 0.131.2 ± 0.201.5 ± 0.191.6 ± 0.231.4 ± 0.24
  • Data are means ± SE. Maternal serum levels of hormones and nutrients at pregnancy day 16.5.

  • *

    * P < 0.05 vs. controls. Significance was determined by Student's t test in F0 dams and ANOVA in F1 dams. TG, triglycerides.