TABLE 2

Association of CDKAL1 SNPs rs7756992 and rs9295479 and HHEX SNP rs1111875 with acute and early (30-min) insulin response among full-heritage Pima Indians with normal glucose tolerance

Traitrs7756992 (CDKAL1)
rs9295479 (CDKAL1)
rs1111875 (HHEX)
AAAGGGP valueAAATTTP valueTTTCCCP value
n (men/women)85/5367/2511/1045/2586/4744/2461/3383/4424/11
Age (years)27 ± 627 ± 728 ± 627 ± 627 ± 727 ± 627 ± 627 ± 627 ± 6
Percent fat*32 ± 830 ± 832 ± 80.4233 ± 832 ± 829 ± 90.00331 ± 831 ± 830 ± 90.16
Log10 AIR (units/ml)2.35 ± 0.272.37 ± 0.292.23 ± 0.230.042.40 ± 0.292.37 ± 0.262.27 ± 0.270.042.38 ± 0.282.35 ± 0.282.25 ± 0.230.02
Fasting glucose (mg/dl)89 ± 988 ± 989 ± 80.9788 ± 889 ± 987 ± 80.5688 ± 989 ± 890 ± 100.36
30-min glucose (mg/dl)143 ± 27141 ± 23143 ± 240.81144 ± 26142 ± 25140 ± 250.28141 ± 27141 ± 23149 ± 270.08
60-min glucose (mg/dl)139 ± 31138 ± 28152 ± 290.09139 ± 31139 ± 31138 ± 300.90139 ± 31137 ± 27146 ± 360.26
2-h glucose (mg/dl)107 ± 20111 ± 18112 ± 190.64108 ± 20108 ± 20109 ± 190.57110 ± 18108 ± 20110 ± 200.67
Log10 fasting insulin (μU/ml)1.52 ± 0.221.53 ± 0.231.51 ± 0.170.911.55 ± 0.211.53 ± 0.241.48 ± 0.210.991.55 ± 0.231.52 ± 0.221.47 ± 0.180.16
Log10 30-min insulin (μU/ml)§2.37 ± 0.272.35 ± 0.232.19 ± 0.240.00042.40 ± 0.302.38 ± 0.232.25 ± 0.220.0032.37 ± 0.262.36 ± 0.252.24 ± 0.250.01
Log10 2-h insulin (μU/ml)2.08 ± 0.312.07 ± 0.292.11 ± 0.270.552.09 ± 0.332.10 ± 0.302.02 ± 0.320.512.12 ± 0.302.07 ± 0.302.02 ± 0.300.36
Log10 Insulin-stimulated glucose disposal (mg · kg EMBS−1 · min−1)0.57 ± 0.120.57 ± 0.120.57 ± 0.110.970.55 ± 0.110.56 ± 0.110.60 ± 0.120.230.56 ± 0.120.57 ± 0.120.59 ± 0.100.32
  • Data are means ± SD. P values are given for a dominant model (rs7756992 AA + AG vs. GG; rs9295479 AA + AT vs. TT, and rs1111875 TT + TC vs. CC) and were calculated after adjusting for covariates that are listed as

  • *

    * age and sex;

  • age, sex, percent body fat, and glucose disposal rate;

  • age, sex, and percent body fat; and

  • §

    § age, sex, percent body fat, glucose disposal rate, and 30-min glucose levels. The AIR was assessed in response to a 25-g intravenous glucose bolus, and the early (30-min) insulin response was determined during a 75-g OGTT. Additional metabolic characteristics of these subjects include percentage of body fat, glucose, and insulin levels at intervals during the OGTT and insulin-stimulated glucose disposal rate as assessed during a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp.