TABLE 1

Baseline clinical and laboratory characteristics of control subjects and first-degree relatives of type 2 diabetic patients and relative subgroups: RESP and NRES of ATP-synthesis to exercise training

ControlRelativesRESPNRES
n(women/men)12 (6/6)24 (13/11)10 (4/6)14 (9/5)
Age (years)37 ± 11 (30–44)40 ± 12 (35–45)41 ± 15 (31–52)39 ± 11 (33–46)
Body weight (kg)71 ± 13 (63–79)73 ± 14 (68–79)76 ± 14 (65–86)72 ± 13 (64–79)
BMI (kg/m2)23 ± 2 (22–25)25 ± 4 (24–27)26 ± 4 (23–29)25 ± 4 (22–27)
Waist-to-hip ratio0.83 ± 0.08 (0.78–0.88)0.85 ± 0.05 (0.83–0.87)0.87 ± 0.04 (0.84–0.90)0.84 ± 0.05 (0.81–0.87)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)124 ± 19 (112–135)126 ± 11 (121–130)127 ± 11 (119–135)125 ± 12 (118–132)
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)82 ± 10 (76–88)83 ± 8 (79–86)82 ± 8 (76–88)84 ± 8 (79–88)
A1C (%)5.3 ± 0.3 (5.1–5.5)5.4 ± 0.3 (5.3–5.6)5.5 ± 0.4 (5.2–5.7)5.4 ± 0.3 (5.3–5.6)
Triglycerides (mmol/l)0.87 ± 0.50 (0.53–1.20)1.23 ± 0.70 (0.94–1.53)1.32 ± 0.57 (0.91–1.73)1.18 ± 0.80 (0.72–1.64)
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.7 ± 0.45 (1.4–2.0)1.5 ± 0.4 (1.3–1.6)1.4 ± 0.4 (1.1–1.7)1.5 ± 0.4 (1.3–1.7)
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)3.0 ± 0.7 (2.5–3.4)3.5 ± 0.9 (3.1–3.9)3.8 ± 0.9 (3.2–4.4)3.3 ± 1.0 (2.8–3.9)
Physical activity (scale 1–5)2.7 ± 0.3 (2.5–2.9)2.9 ± 0.3 (2.7–3.0)2.9 ± 0.3 (2.6–3.1)2.9 ± 0.3 (2.7–3.1)
VO2max(ml · kg−1· min−1)33.6 ± 6.0 (29.8–37.5)30.6 ± 6.4 (27.8–33.3)29.6 ± 5.5 (25.7–33.6)31.2 ± 7.1 (27.1–35.3)
VO2RCP(ml · kg−1· min−1)26.2 ± 4.8 (23.1–29.2)22.8 ± 5.7 (20.4–25.2)22.1 ± 4.7 (18.7–25.4)23.3 ± 6.4 (19.6–27.0)
  • Data are means ± SD (95% CI). NRES, not responding to exercise with stimulation of fATPase; RESP, responding to stimulation of fATPase.