TABLE 3

Responses of relatives and of RESP and NRES of ATP synthesis to exercise training

Before exerciseAfter exercise
Glucose (mmol/l)
    Control subjects4.9 ± 0.3 (4.7–5.1)4.9 ± 0.3 (4.7–5.1)
    Relatives5.0 ± 0.4 (4.8–5.1)5.0 ± 0.4 (4.8–5.1)
        RESP5.0 ± 0.4 (4.8–5.3)5.0 ± 0.4 (4.7–5.3)
        NRES4.9 ± 0.4 (4.7–5.2)5.0 ± 0.5 (4.7–5.2)
Lactate (mmol/l)
    Control subjects1.1 ± 0.3 (0.9–1.3)1.0 ± 0.2 (0.8–1.1)*
    Relatives1.5 ± 0.5 (1.3–1.7)**1.3 ± 0.5 (1.0–1.5)*
        RESP1.3 ± 0.5 (1.0–1.7)1.2 ± 0.3 (0.9–1.4)
        NRES1.6 ± 0.4 (1.3–1.8)1.3 ± 0.6 (1.0–1.6)
FFAs (μmol/l)
    Control subjects411 ± 190 (290–531)502 ± 154 (404–600)
    Relatives443 ± 160 (376–511)540 ± 204 (450–631)*
        RESP488 ± 195 (348–628)510 ± 204 (364–655)
        NRES408 ± 128 (338–486)566 ± 209 (434–699)*
Insulin (pmol/l)
    Control subjects27 ± 8 (22–32)23 ± 7 (19–27)
    Relatives41 ± 34 (27–55)39 ± 31 (26–52)
        RESP36 ± 22 (21–52)36 ± 20 (22–50)
        NRES45 ± 41 (22–69)40 ± 37 (19–62)
C-peptide (nmol/l)
    Control subjects1.6 ± 0.4 (1.3–1.8)1.5 ± 0.4 (1.3–1.8)
    Relatives2.3 ± 0.8 (1.9–2.6)**2.2 ± 1.0 (1.8–2.6)§
        RESP2.4 ± 0.8 (1.9–3.0)2.3 ± 1.0 (1.6–3.0)
        NRES2.2 ± 0.8 (1.7–2.7)2.1 ± 1.0 (1.6–2.7)
QUICKI
    Control subjects0.51 ± 0.05 (0.48–0.54)0.52 ± 0.04 (0.50–0.54)
    Relatives0.47 ± 0.07 (0.45–0.50)0.48 ± 0.07 (0.46–0.51)
        RESP0.48 ± 0.06 (0.44–0.52)0.48 ± 0.05 (0.44–0.51)
        NRES0.47 ± 0.07 (0.43–0.51)0.49 ± 0.08 (0.45–0.53)
Insulinogenic index
    Control subjects4.3 ± 1.5 (3.3–5.2)6.1 ± 4.2 (3.4–8.8)
    Relatives4.8 ± 2.4 (3.8–5.9)6.0 ± 4.7 (4.0–8.0)
        RESP4.3 ± 2.7 (2.4–6.2)5.0 ± 3.6 (2.4–7.5)
        NRES5.2 ± 2.2 (4.0–6.5)6.8 ± 5.4 (3.7–9.9)
  • Data are means ± SD (95% CI).

  • *P< 0.05 before vs. after exercise;

  • **P< 0.05 control subjects vs. relatives at baseline;

  • §P< 0.05 control subjects vs. relatives after exercise training. NRES, not responding to exercise with stimulation of fATPase; QUICKI, quantitative insulin-sensitivity check index; RESP, responding to exercise with stimulation of fATPase.