TABLE 1

Baseline characteristics of FinnDiane study participants, stratified according to UAE*

NormoalbuminuriaMicroalbuminuriaMacroalbuminuriaESKD
n2,296504578293
Age (years)36 ± 1238 ± 12*41 ± 10*44 ± 8*
Male sex1,088 (47)296 (59)338 (58)178 (61)
Duration of diabetes (years)20 ± 1226 ± 11*29 ± 8*32 ± 8*
Insulin dose (IU/kg)0.7 ± 0.20.7 ± 0.30.7 ± 0.20.8 ± 0.4
Insulin injections/day4.8 ± 1.04.8 ± 1.04.5 ± 1.0*4.2 ± 1.0*
A1C (%)8.2 ± 1.48.8 ± 1.5*9.0 ± 1.5*8.6 ± 1.6
Estimated glucose disposal rate (mg · kg−1 · min−1)7.3 ± 2.25.1 ± 2.0*4.0 ± 1.6*4.0 ± 1.6*
Hypertension1,344 (59)444 (88)557 (96)288 (97)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)129 ± 15136 ± 16*145 ± 20*153 ± 25*
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)78 ± 980 ± 10*83 ± 10*86 ± 13*
Medication use
    ACE inhibition204 (9)271 (54)425 (75)61 (21)
    Angiotensin receptor blocker44 (2)42 (8)75 (13)31 (5)
    Calcium channel blocker60 (3)40 (8)208 (36)163 (56)
    β-Blocker90 (4)46 (9)190 (33)188 (64)
    Other antihypertensive agents64 (3)48 (10)282 (49)170 (58)
    Lipid-lowering therapy135 (6)49 (10)137 (23)76 (26)
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)4.8 ± 0.95.0 ± 0.95.4 ± 1.15.5 ± 1.2
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)3.0 ± 0.83.1 ± 0.83.5 ± 0.93.5 ± 1.1*
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.1 ± 0.41.3 ± 0.41.3 ± 0.41.3 ± 0.4
Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.1 ± 0.71.3 ± 0.91.7 ± 1.21.7 ± 0.9*
Any retinopathy889 (39)382 (76)547 (95)290 (99)
Retinopathy requiring laser therapy340 (15)241 (48)460 (80)288 (97)
Current smoker491 (21)153 (30)164 (29)49 (16)
Established macrovascular disease88 (4)37 (7)105 (18)138 (47)
Estimated GFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m273 (3)45 (9)354 (61)N/A
  • Data are the means ± SD or n (% deaths). To convert values for cholesterol to milligrams per deciliter, divide by 0.2586.

  • *P value versus patients with normoalbuminuria <0.05, calculated by Student's t test;

  • P value versus patients with normoalbuminuria <0.05, calculated by χ2;

  • ‡a measure of insulin sensitivity using the formula proposed by Williams et al. (43). ESKD, end-stage kidney disease.