TABLE 2

Baseline characteristics of FinnDiane study participants stratified according to estimated GFR*

>12060–120<60ESKD
n2722,699462293
Age (years)28 ± 10*37 ± 1244 ± 10*44 ± 8*
Male sex194 (71)1,320 (49)214 (46)178 (61)
Duration of diabetes (years)17 ± 1120 ± 1230 ± 9*32 ± 8*
Insulin dose (IU/kg)0.8 ± 0.20.7 ± 0.20.6 ± 0.20.8 ± 0.4
Insulin injections/day4.9 ± 1.04.8 ± 1.04.5 ± 1.0*4.2 ± 1.0*
A1C (%)8.6 ± 1.68.4 ± 1.58.8 ± 1.5*8.6 ± 1.6
Estimated glucose disposal rate (mg · kg−1 · min−1)7.9 ± 2.07.3 ± 2.24.6 ± 2.0*4.0 ± 1.6*
Hypertension176 (65)1,888 (70)444 (96)288 (97)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)128 ± 14132 ± 16145 ± 20*153 ± 25*
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)78 ± 979 ± 981 ± 10*86 ± 13*
Medication use
    ACE inhibition30 (11)611 (23)294 (64)61 (21)
    Angiotensin receptor blocker3 (1)118 (4)55 (12)31 (5)
    Calcium channel blocker2 (1)134 (5)177 (39)163 (56)
    β-Blocker1 (0)150 (6)185 (40)188 (64)
    Other antihypertensive agents1 (0)154 (6)219 (47)170 (58)
    Lipid-lowering therapy11 (4)206 (8)123 (27)76 (26)
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)4.9 ± 0.94.9 ± 0.95.3 ± 1.0*5.5 ± 1.2*
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)3.0 ± 0.83.0 ± 0.83.5 ± 1.0*3.5 ± 1.1*
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.4 ± 0.4*1.1 ± 0.41.3 ± 0.4*1.3 ± 0.4*
Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.2 ± 0.71.2 ± 0.81.7 ± 1.2*1.7 ± 0.9*
Any retinopathy76 (29)1,313 (50)420 (93)290 (99)
Retinopathy requiring laser therapy27 (10)683 (25)360 (78)288 (97)
Current smoker98 (37)614 (24)95 (22)49 (16)
Established macrovascular disease31 (11)123 (5)116 (25)138 (47)
Macroalbuminuria2 (3)210 (8)338 (73)N/A
Microalbuminuria2 (5)405 (15)37 (8)N/A
  • Data are n (% deaths) or means ± SD. To convert values for cholesterol to milligrams per deciliter, divide by 0.02586.

  • *P < 0.05 vs. patients with an estimated GFR 60–120, calculated by Student's t test;

  • P < 0.05 vs. patients with an estimated GFR 60–120, calculated by χ2;

  • ‡ a measure of insulin sensitivity using the formula proposed by Williams et al. (43). ESKD, end-stage kidney disease.