TABLE 2

Concentrations of fasting plasma glucose and prevalence rates of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes by birth cohort and severity of the Chinese famine area

Childhood-exposed cohorts*Fetal-exposed cohortNonexposed cohort
Late childhoodMid childhoodEarly childhood
Fasting plasma glucose
    Severely affected famine area
        Mean (SE, mmol/l)4.95 (0.07)4.84 (0.04)4.87 (0.05)4.95 (0.07)4.75 (0.03)
        P0.0080.0590.0370.007Ref.
    Less severely affected famine area
        Mean (SE, mmol/l)5.09 (0.09)4.97 (0.08)4.88 (0.04)4.73 (0.04)4.81 (0.05)
        P0.0110.1130.3210.234Ref.
    P for interaction between area and cohort0.8980.7930.271<0.0001
Hyperglycemia
    Severely affected famine area
        Prevalence (%)5.192.683.767.292.02
        Odds ratio (95% CI)2.38 (1.11–5.11)1.21 (0.57–2.55)1.77 (0.82–3.83)3.92 (1.64–9.39)Ref.
    Less severely affected famine area
        Prevalence (%)7.175.224.342.143.46
        Odds ratio (95% CI)2.27 (1.02–5.06)1.94 (0.80–4.72)1.16 (0.56–2.40)0.57 (0.25–1.31)Ref.
    P for interaction between area and cohort0.5420.7660.3410.001
Type 2 diabetes
    Severely affected famine area
        Prevalence (%)3.511.192.902.011.37
        Odds ratio (95% CI)2.51 (0.91–6.87)0.75 (0.26–2.12)2.07 (0.82–5.24)1.43 (0.53–3.87)Ref.
    Less severely affected famine area
        Prevalence (%)4.602.992.481.082.08
        Odds ratio (95% CI)2.34 (0.72–7.62)1.86 (0.53–6.45)1.02 (0.35–2.93)0.41 (0.12–1.35)Ref.
    P for interaction between area and cohort0.6060.4240.2430.102
  • *Data are adjusted means (SE) for fasting plasma glucose, sex standard prevalence, and odds ratio for hyperglycemia and diabetes. All odds ratios use a nonexposed cohort as the reference cohort. Adjusted factors included sex, education level, family history of diabetes, and current smoking, alcohol use, and physical activity level.