Baseline characteristics

VariableMedian (interquartile range)
    Age (years)32.2 (28.2–36.4)
    BMI (kg/m2)30.7 (27.8–32.8)
    Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)111 (104–119)
    Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)69 (64–74)
    Body percent fat (%)*44.0 (40.7–48.4)
    Fasting total cholesterol (mg/dl)169 (155–202)
    Fasting HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)38 (32–44)
    Fasting LDL cholesterol (mg/dl)110 (93–129)
    Fasting triglycerides (mg/dl)127 (82–170)
    Fasting free fatty acid (μmol/l)468 (382–570)
    Fasting adiponectin (ng/ml)6,034 (4,584–7,362)
    Fasting CRP (ng/ml)28.9 (14.2–57.3)
    Fasting leptin (ng/ml)11.3 (8.7–13.7)
    Fasting IL-6 (pg/ml)2.4 (1.5–3.2)
    Fasting glucose (mg/dl)95.0 (90.5–104)
    2-h glucose (mg/dl)142.5 (119.5–166)
    Glucose total area (AUC: mg/dl per min/1,000)25.0 (22.4–28.6)
    Fasting insulin (μU/ml)17.5 (12.5–25)
    2-h insulin (μU/ml)110 (77–178)
    Insulin total area (μU/ml per min/1,000)18.1 (13.2–25.3)
    30 Δinsulin (μU/ml)80.5 (54.5–110)
    Insulin sensitivity (SI; min/μU/ml × 10−4)§1.27 (0.95–2.0)
    Acute insulin response (AIRg, μU/ml × min)509 (304–843)
    Disposition index (DI: SI × AIRg)834 (423–1,320)
Hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp**
Basal glucose production (HGO: mmol/min/m2)0.38 (0.33–0.42)
Basal glucose clearance (Clrglu: 100 × ml/min/m2)7.11 (6.43–7.79)
Steady-state glucose infusion rate (Ginf:mmol/min/m2)0.70 (0.57–0.79)
Steady-state ΔHGO (mmol/min/m2)††−0.27 (−0.23 to −0.30)
Steady-state ΔClrglu (100 × ml/min/m2)††10.1 (7.6–12.9)
  • To convert the glucose in unit of mg/dl to the SI unit of mmol/l, multiply the number in the table by 0.0555.

  • *Estimated by bioelectrical impedance.

  • †During 75-g oGTTs.

  • ‡Calculated as 30 min insulin − fasting insulin during oGTT.

  • §Calculated by minimal model analysis of ivGTT insulin and glucose data.

  • ‖Incremental insulin area during first 10 min of ivGTT.

  • ¶A measure of β-cell compensation for insulin resistance.

  • **Basal values are the means of data collected during the last 90 min of the 3-h basal tracer infusion period, and steady-state values are the means of data collected during the final 30 min of the 3-h euglycemic insulin infusion period.

  • ††Calculated as steady state-basal.