TABLE 1

Characteristics of study participants according to severity of DR

No DRMild DRModerate-to-severe DRP for trend
n70529247
Mean age (years)67.3 ± 4.267.4 ± 4.267.1 ± 4.20.962
Male sex49.2 (347)55.1 (161)57.4 (27)0.061
Education level
    University16 (113)16.1 (47)19.1 (9)0.312
    Other profession/technical qualification27.2 (192)32.9 (96)25.5 (12)
    Secondary/primary school56.7 (400)51.0 (149)55.3 (26)
Diabetes-related variables
    Median diabetes duration (years)5.5 (3.4–9.4)9.3 (5.1–14.4)17.1 (12.1–22.9)<0.001
    Treatment
        Diets23.8 (168)9.2 (27)2.1 (1)<0.001
        Oral antidiabetes agents only65.7 (463)63.4 (185)38.3 (18)
        Insulin with or without oral antidiabetes agents10.5 (74)27.4 (80)59.6 (28)
    A1C (%)7.3 ± 1.17.5 ± 1.18.4 ± 1.4<0.001
Vascular risk factors
    BMI (kg/m2)31.4 ± 5.531.3 ± 6.132.3 ± 5.30.521
    WHR0.96 ± 0.070.97 ± 0.080.99 ± 0.090.001
    Smoking status
        Never38.0 (268)39.4 (115)53.2 (25)0.112
        Former47.4 (334)47.6 (139)36.2 (17)
        Current14.6 (103)13.0 (38)10.6 (5)
    Median average alcohol intake (drinks/week)1 (0–7)0.6 (0–6.8)1 (0–3.8)0.291
    Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)133.3 ± 15.8133.41 ± 7.4132.8 ± 19.90.972
    Hypertension84.3 (594)84.6 (247)95.7 (45)0.152
    Total cholesterol (mmol/l)4.3 ± 0.94.2 ± 0.94.3 ± 1.00.201
    HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.30 ± 0.41.29 ± 0.41.17 ± 0.40.083
    Hypercholesterolemia89.9 (634)88.4 (258)100.0 (47)0.382
Cardiovascular disease variables
    Myocardial infarction and/or angina30.2 (213)31.5 (92)44.7 (21)0.111
    Stroke and/or TIA6.2 (44)13.4 (39)14.9 (7)<0.001
    Intermittent claudication5.5 (39)6.5 (19)8.5 (4)0.353
Any macrovascular disease (myocardial infarction, angina, stroke, TIA, or IC)35.3 (249)38.4 (112)51.1 (24)0.046
  • Data are means ± SD, % (n), or median (interquartile range) unless otherwise indicated. TIA, transient ischemic attack. Bold values are statistically significant values (P ≤ 0.05). IC, intermittent claudication.