TABLE 1

Characteristics of mothers with GDM versus control mothers

Missing valuesControl mothers (n = 248)Women who developed GDM (n = 124)P value (univariate)P value (adjusted)*P value (adjusted)
Maternal age (years)0/032.6 ± 5.234.3 ± 5.00.0020.4300.420
Maternal BMI at booking (kg/m2)0/025.4 ± 5.229.2 ± 7.9<0.001§<0.001<0.001
Parity
    Nullip0/089 (35.9)45 (36.3)1.0000.0030.003
    Parous159 (64.1)79 (63.7)
Ethnicity
    White148 (59.7)73 (58.9)
    Black0/062 (25.0)34 (27.4)0.7690.3250.440
    Asian29 (11.7)11 (8.9)
    Other9 (3.6)6 (4.8)
Previous GDM
    No158 (63.7)44 (35.5)
    Yes0/01 (0.4)35 (28.2)<0.001<0.001
    Nulliparous89 (35.9)45 (36.3)
Family history of diabetes
    No0/0218 (87.9)76 (61.3)<0.001<0.001<0.001
    Yes30 (12.1)48 (38.7)
Smoker
    No0/0230 (92.7)115 (92.7)1.0000.6050.593
    Yes18 (7.3)9 (7.3)
Gestational age at booking (days)0/087.4 ± 3.287.3 ± 3.60.7370.8640.967
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)58/27111.7 ± 16.6118.4 ± 14.10.001§0.2810.269
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)58/2771.4 ± 8.972.9 ± 8.40.1630.5850.688
Mode of delivery
    Vaginal190 (77.2)80 (65.0)
    Elective caesarean section2/136 (14.6)25 (20.3)0.0370.4380.503
    Emergency caesarean section19 (7.7)18 (14.6)
    Ventouse1 (0.4)0 (0.0)
Sex
    Female0/0118 (47.8)62 (50.0)0.7410.8620.985
    Male129 (52.2)62 (50.0)
Birth weight (g)0/03,392.8 ± 540.33,343.2 ± 495.00.3780.8960.911
Gestation at OGTT (weeks)027.7 ± 4.7
OGTT (fasting, 2-h glucose)0, 65.3 ± 1.7; 9.1 ± 1.6
OGTT (A1C) (%)145.8 ± 0.8
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)0/04.59 ± 0.854.88 ± 0.900.0030.0400.038
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)*0/01.68 ± 0.361.55 ± 0.380.0020.0030.001
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)0/02.29 ± 0.712.59 ± 0.78<0.0010.0030.003
Triglycerides (mmol/l)*0/01.23 (0.95–1.62)1.49 (1.14–2.05)<0.001§0.0170.012
Adiponectin (μg/ml)0/09.88 ± 5.577.38 ± 4.19<0.001§0.0270.040
E-selectin (ng/ml)0/031.3 (23.2–40.4)31.3 (24.7–44.2)0.308§0.8670.827
GGT (U/l)0/011.0 (9.0–16.0)12.0 (9.8–17.0)0.063§0.6320.566
CRP (mg/l)*0/03.21 (1.62–6.97)5.77 (2.7–11.6)<0.001§0.0300.024
t-PA27/165.32 (4.23–6.58)6.41 (5.19–8.27)0.001§0.001<0.001
  • Data are means ± SD, n (%), or median (interquartile range). Log transformed for regression analyses.

  • *Adjusted for maternal age, BMI, gestational age at sampling, smoking, ethnicity, parity, conception status, and previous GDM.

  • †Women without previous GDM (nulliparous or previous pregnancies without GDM) adjusted for maternal age, BMI, gestational age at sampling, smoking, ethnicity, parity, and conception status.

  • t test;

  • §Wilcoxon test;

  • ‖Fisher exact test.