TABLE 1

Characteristics of the cohort and results of Cox regression survival analysis of progression from islet autoimmunity to type 1 diabetes

Progressed to type 1 diabetes (n = 50)No type 1 diabetes (n = 90)Unadjusted HR (95% CI)Adjusted HR (95% CI)
Age (years) at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes8.7 (1.9–15)
Follow-up (years) from onset of islet autoimmunity4.1 (0.2–11)4.6 (1.6–14)
Positive for >2 islet autoantibodies at the first and/or second positive visit36 (72%)21 (23.3%)4.57 (2.46–8.51)4.24 (2.26–7.95)
Female sex26 (52%)48 (53.3%)1.18 (0.67–2.06)1.41 (0.79–2.50)
First-degree relative with type 1 diabetes35 (70%)53 (58.9%)1.23 (0.67–2.26)1.13 (0.61–2.10)
HLA DRB1*04-DQB1*0302/DRB1*03-DQB1*020126 (52.0%)27 (30.0%)1.84 (1.06–3.21)1.51 (0.86–2.67)
Non–Hispanic white ethnicity§46 (92.0%)72 (80.0%)1.94 (0.70–5.39)1.45 (0.51–4.13)
Age (years) when first islet autoantibody positive3.1 (0.7–12)5.2 (0.7–13)0.93 (0.85–1.02)1.01 (0.091–1.11)
  • Data are median (range) or n (%) unless otherwise indicated.

  • †Estimates from Cox regression model simultaneously adjusting for multiple autoantibodies in first two visits, HLA high risk genotype, presence of first-degree relative with type 1 diabetes, and age when first positive for islet autoantibodies.

  • ‡Of these, 35 had an affected father only, 16 had an affected mother only, 34 had an affected sibling, and 3 had a sibling and a parent with type 1 diabetes.

  • §Ethnic group was self-reported. There were 118 non–Hispanic whites, 19 Hispanics, one African American, and two children of mixed ethnicity in the cohort.

  • ¶HRs per year increase in age when first positive for islet autoantibodies.