TABLE 2

Clinical characteristics of three stratified groups for number of risk alleles

GroupnSex (M/F)Age (years)BMI (kg/m2)First-phase insulin response (pmol/l)Second-phase insulin response (pmol/l)ISI (μmol · min−1 · kg−1 · pmol/l−1)DI (μmol · min−1 · kg−1)GLP-1–stimulated insulin release (pmol/l)*Arginine-stimulated insulin release (pmol/l)*
Low14158/8345 ± 1526.0 ± 4.6826 (764–892)248 (232–265)0.142 (0.130–0.156)118 (108–129)1,792 (1,541–2,084)2,145 (1,930–2,385)
Medium18388/9545 ± 1525.8 ± 4.5755 (699–815)252 (236–269)0.140 (0.128–0.153)108 (100–116)1,698 (1,441–2,002)1,982 (1,747–2,249)
High12342/8145 ± 1326.1 ± 4.4638 (588–693)239 (221–258)0.158 (0.142–0.174)98 (90–107)1,614 (1,354–1,923)2,080 (1,855–2,332)
β10.88 (0.83–0.93)0.98 (0.93–1.03)NDND0.95 (0.84–1.07)0.98 (0.91–1.06)
P5.9 × 10−60.500.380.65
β20.87 (0.81–0.93)0.96 (0.90–1.03)1.05 (0.98–1.13)0.91 (0.86–0.97)0.92 (0.83–1.06)0.97 (0.89–1.06)
P1.8 × 10−50.270.162.9 × 10−30.280.48
  • Data are means ± SD or estimated means using model 1 (95% CI). Low = carriers of less than seven risk alleles, medium = carriers of seven or eight risk alleles, high = carriers of more than eight risk alleles. All variables were log-transformed before analysis. P values were computed for different additive models using linear generalized estimating equations, which takes into account the family relatedness when computing the standard errors. Model 1: adjusted for study center, glucose tolerance status, age, sex, BMI, and ISI. Model 2: adjusted for study center, glucose tolerance status, age, sex, and BMI.

  • *Available for 224 subjects from the Tübingen and NTR sample. ND, not determined.