TABLE 1

Clinical characteristics of the individual study samples

Hoorn*Utrecht*NTR Twins*
IGTNGTIGTNGTIGT
n13764121167
Sex (male/female)64/7315/494/858/580/7
Age (years)60.5 ± 8.645.9 ± 6.449.5 ± 7.731.5 ± 6.531.2 ± 3.2
BMI (kg/m2)28.1 ± 4.025.8 ± 3.826.7 ± 4.124.2 ± 3.524.5 ± 3.3
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)6.3 ± 0.74.6 ± 0.45.1 ± 0.44.6 ± 0.44.6 ± 0.6
2-h plasma glucose (mmol/l)8.8 ± 1.75.1 ± 1.08.5 ± 1.25.2 ± 1.18.1 ± 0.3
Fasting plasma insulin (pmol/l)62 (46–91)30 (24–42)66 (42–78)34 (27–51)39 (29–60)
First-phase insulin response (pmol/l)587 (378–895)885 (644–1,217)678 (461–909)814 (589–1,162)795 (693–1,210)
Second-phase insulin response (pmol/l)255 (176–354)260 (191–365)251 (186–307)218 (162–358)217 (210–434)
ISI (μmol · min−1 · kg−1 · pmol−1 · l−1)0.108 (0.068–0.164)0.190 (0.127–0.282)0.111 (0.082–0.256)0.227 (0.152–0.323)0.123 (0.109–0.183)
DI (μmol · min−1 · kg−1)65 (42–92)172 (103–238)72 (55–128)180 (140–234)138 (82–151)
GLP-1–stimulated insulin release (pmol/l)NANANA1,225 (734–2,587)848 (577–1,239)
Arginine-stimulated insulin release (pmol/l)NANANA2,188 (1,526–2,973)1,673 (1,438–1,908)
  • Data are means ± SD, median (interquartile range), or n.

  • *Original population from which the cohort originated (26,28–30). NA, not available.