TABLE 1

Weight, adipose tissue mass and distribution, organ fat, and abdominal subcutaneous fat cell size before and after 1-year lifestyle intervention

Men (n = 26)*Women (n = 32)†
Baseline1 yearBaseline1 year
Weight (kg)‡101.2 ± 1.988.8 ± 1.891.4 ± 1.783.9 ± 1.7
BMI (kg/m2)‡32.4 ± 0.528.4 ± 0.534.8 ± 0.632.0 ± 0.6
FFM (kg)‡70.9 ± 1.166.9 ± 1.054.2 ± 1.052.1 ± 0.9
Fat mass (Kg)‡30.3 ± 1.222.0 ± 1.237.1 ± 1.131.8 ± 1.1
Percent fat mass (of weight)‡29.8 ± 0.824.5 ± 0.940.4 ± 0.737.5 ± 0.8
Upper-body fat (kg)‡21.4 ± 0.915.1 ± 0.924.4 ± 0.920.7 ± 0.8
Gluteo-femoral fat (kg)§8.2 ± 0.36.2 ± 0.312.1 ± 0.610.6 ± 0.5
VAT (cm2)‡311.7 ± 18.3216.5 ± 18.3259.5 ± 16.8213.3 ± 16.7
Deep abdominal SAT (cm2)‡170.9 ± 11.6120.4 ± 10.2148.2 ± 10.6130.6 ± 9.3
Superficial abdominal SAT (cm2120.9 ± 11.592.0 ± 10.6237.1 ± 10.6206.8 ± 9.7
Subfascial thigh AT (cm2)(one leg)§18.1 ± 1.512.9 ± 1.122.7 ± 1.518.1 ± 1.1
Superficial thigh SAT (cm2) (one leg)§84.7 ± 7.966.8 ± 7.5156.5 ± 7.5138.4 ± 7.1
Liver attenuation (HU)§51.2 ± 2.159.7 ± 1.846.5 ± 1.954.6 ± 1.7
Spleen attenuation (HU)§50.4 ± 0.851.3 ± 0.847.6 ± 0.848.8 ± 0.7
L/S attenuation ratio§1.01 ± 0.041.17 ± 0.040.99 ± 0.041.13 ± 0.04
Muscle area (cm2) (both legs)‡311.5 ± 6.8292.7 ± 6.9223.4 ± 6.3215.2 ± 6.4
Muscle attenuation (HU)46.8 ± 0.947.4 ± 0.845.0 ± 0.845.1 ± 0.7
Fat cell size§0.73 ± 0.050.50 ± 0.040.96 ± 0.040.76 ± 0.03
Fat cell number§3,756 ± 2714,897 ± 3702,982 ± 2393,345 ± 325
  • Data are unadjusted means ± SE. FFM, FM, upper body fat, and gluteo-femoral fat measured by DEXA; VAT, SAT, abdominal and thigh SAT subcompartments, and organ (liver, spleen, muscle) attenuation measured by CT scan.

  • *Missing data for men (out of 26) for organ attenuations (1 man each) and fat cell size (2 men).

  • †Missing data for women (out of 32) for abdominal adipose tissue measurements (1 woman), thigh adipose tissue and organ attenuations (3 women each), and fat cell size (1 woman).

  • ‡Significant change in both men and women (P range <0.05 to 0.00001), with significant interaction by sex (P range <0.05 to 0.001 for the interaction term).

  • §Significant change in both men and women (P range <0.05 to 0.00001), with no significant interaction by sex.