TABLE 1

Baseline characteristics of participants according to incident type 2 diabetes

No diabetesDiabetesP*
n25,1491,687
Age (years)54.6 ± 7.1054.6 ± 6.550.96
Current smoking (%)11.513.20.04
Hypertension (%)22.447.0<0.001
Postmenopausal status (%)54.055.6<0.001
Postmenopausal hormone use (%)44.340.40.002
Fasting (%)75.878.60.01
BMI (kg/m2)25.4 ± 4.630.6 ± 5.9<0.001
A1C (%)4.98 (4.83–5.15)5.28 (5.07–5.53)<0.001
Family history of diabetes (%)23.443.9<0.001
hsCRP (mg/l)1.84 (0.74–3.98)4.42 (2.26–7.34)<0.001
Lipid concentrations (mg/dl)
    Total cholesterol208 (184–235)213 (187–242)<0.001
    LDL cholesterol121 (100–144)126 (104–152)<0.001
    HDL cholesterol53 (44–63)42 (36–50)<0.001
    Triglycerides115 (82–167)175 (126–247)<0.001
NMR lipoprotein particle concentrations
    LDLNMR (nmol/l)
        Total1,260 (1,024–1,570)1,587 (1,288–1,944)<0.001
        Large551 (414–692)424 (268–589)<0.001
        Small632 (382–972)1,075 (714–1,502)<0.001
        IDLNMR32 (10–66)51 (22–93)<0.001
    HDLNMR (μmol/l)
        Total35.1 (31.2–39.5)34.2 (30.1–39.0)<0.001
        Large7.8 (5.3–10.5)4.6 (3.0–6.8)<0.001
        Medium2.7 (0.8–6.0)2.7 (0.8–5.8)0.68
        Small23.6 (19.9–27.2)25.5 (22.0–28.8)<0.001
    VLDLNMR (nmol/l)
        Total68.0 (48.9–90.1)73.8 (55.1–94.6)<0.001
        Large1.3 (0.3–3.6)3.0 (1.4–5.5)<0.001
        Medium20.8 (11.1–31.8)20.9 (11.9–32.6)0.13
        Small44.5 (32.2–57.8)48.2 (36.7–59.9)<0.001
NMR average particle size (nm)
    LDLNMR size21.4 (20.9–21.9)20.7 (20.1–21.3)<0.001
    HDLNMR size9.0 (8.7–9.4)8.6 (8.4–8.9)<0.001
    VLDLNMR size46.3 (42.0–51.6)51.1 (46.6–56.7)<0.001
  • Data are median (interquartile range) or means ± SD, unless otherwise indicated.

  • *P values were obtained from Student t test for continuous variables expressed as means, from Wilcoxon rank-sum tests for variables expressed as medians, and χ2 tests for categorical variables.