TABLE 2

Effect of meal ingestion during hyperglycemic clamp on β-cell hormonal response and gastrointestinal peptides in studies with and without intravenous Ex-9 in subjects with and without diabetes

Time interval (min)Diabetic subjectsNondiabetic subjectsStatistical effects (P values)
SalineEx-9SalineEx-9Ex-9 vs. SalineDiabetic vs. nondiabetic subjectsInteraction
Glucose (mmol/l)
    Fasting6.7 ± 0.36.5 ± 0.34.8 ± 0.24.9 ± 0.1NS<0.001NS
    60–9012.3 ± 0.312.2 ± 0.39.3 ± 0.29.5 ± 0.2NS<0.001NS
    95–27012.0 ± 0.412.1 ± 0.49.3 ± 0.29.3 ± 0.2NS<0.001NS
GINF (mg/kg/min)
    60–903.9 ± 0.43.5 ± 0.46.0 ± 0.55 ± 0.5<0.05<0.01NS
    95–2706.1 ± 1.64.6 ± 1.411.5 ± 0.79.6 ± 0.9<0.01<0.05NS
Insulin (pmol/l)
    Fasting128 ± 22142 ± 28111 ± 20116 ± 21NSNSNS
    60–90363 ± 69207 ± 32719 ± 134490 ± 107<0.001<0.01NS
    95–270894 ± 220577 ± 942,243 ± 3651,531 ± 287<0.001<0.01<0.05
C-peptide (nmol/l)
    Fasting1.2 ± 0.11.0 ± 0.10.9 ± 0.10.9 ± 0.20.09NSNS
    60–902.1 ± 0.31.8 ± 0.23.2 ± 0.42.6 ± 0.4<0.001<0.05NS
    95–2704.6 ± 1.13.4 ± 0.67.6 ± 0.95.9 ± 1.1<0.01<0.05NS
ISR (nmol/min)
    Fasting0.34 ± 0.030.35 ± 0.040.47 ± 0.110.49 ± 0.13NSNSNS
    60–900.71 ± 0.10.53 ± 0.081.20 ± 0.170.95 ± 0.2<0.001<0.05NS
    95–2701.43 ± 0.321.03 ± 0.182.42 ± 0.321.83 ± 0.36<0.01<0.05NS
Glucagon (pg/ml)
    Fasting48 ± 449 ± 446 ± 451 ± 5NSNSNS
    80–9041 ± 341 ± 443 ± 242 ± 3NSNSNS
    250–26043 ± 458 ± 840 ± 441 ± 5<0.05NS0.06
GLP-1 (pmol/l)
    80–903.6 ± 0.33.6 ± 0.23.1 ± 0.13.0 ± 0.0NSNSNS
AUCGLP-1 (pmol/l/min)
    95–270438 ± 921,423 ± 340154 ± 73560 ± 230<0.050.08NS
GIP (μmol/l)
    80–900.07 ± 0.00.06 ± 0.00.05 ± 0.00.04 ± 0.0NSNSNS
AUCGIP (μmol/l/min)
    95–24012.7 ± 1.417.1 ± 1.47.9 ± 1.97.7 ± 2.3NS<0.05NS
  • GINF, glucose infusion rate; NS, not significant.