TABLE 1

Characteristics of participants according to categories of A1C

Categories of A1C (%)
3.5–4.95.0–5.45.5–5.96.0–6.4
n1,0125,2633,883899
Age (years)55.4 ± 5.556.3 ± 5.657.4 ± 5.758.0 ± 5.6
Male sex (%)46.842.644.946.1
African American race (%)15.911.826.750.7
Educational level (%)*
    <12 years completed13.414.523.431.9
    12–16 years completed40.444.540.836.6
    >16 years completed46.241.035.831.5
Current smokers (%)*13.018.429.131.3
Current alcohol drinkers (%)64.364.556.046.1
BMI (kg/m2)*26.4 ± 4.726.6 ± 4.527.8 ± 5.229.7 ± 5.9
Fasting glucose (mg/dl)*97.9 ± 8.499.4 ± 8.6103.4 ± 9.1108.1 ± 9.7
Antihypertensive medication (%)23.723.529.242.2
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)*118.6 ± 17.4118.4 ± 18.0121.6 ± 18.0125.4 ± 19.5
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)*72.1 ± 10.071.5 ± 10.172.4 ± 10.373.9 ± 10.3
LDL-C (mmol/l)*3.18 ± 0.913.37 ± 0.913.54 ± 0.953.62 ± 0.96
HDL-C (mmol/l)*1.37 ± 0.481.35 ± 0.451.29 ± 0.421.22 ± 0.38
Triglycerides (mmol/l)*1.33 ± 0.771.42 ± 0.871.46 ± 0.851.53 ± 0.87
History of CHD (%)2.53.75.05.0
Carotid atherosclerosis (%)*4.44.76.910.1
eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2)86.5 ± 17.684.9 ± 16.685.7 ± 18.387.9 ± 19.6
  • Data are mean ± SD or percentage. All comparisons were significant at P < 0.001, except for sex (P = 0.017). eGFR = estimated glomerular filtration rate.

  • *Missing values (number missing): educational level, 13; current smokers, 1; BMI 9, fasting glucose 191; blood pressure, 1; LDL-C, 136: HDL-C, 37; triglycerides, 7; history of CHD, 98; carotid atherosclerosis, 211.