TABLE 1

Characteristics of the study cohort

Children of mothers with T1DChildren of fathers with T1DAll children
n (% male)386 (48.6)260 (52.7)646 (50.2)
Median (IQR) gestation in weeks (range)39 (38–40)40 (39–41)39 (38–40)
Birth weight, g3,572.5 ± 5793,465.4 ± 5103,527.6 ± 553
Median (IQR) birth weight percentile (range)68 (33–91)54 (23–74)60 (28–85)
SGA*35 (9.1)33 (12.7)68 (10.5)
AGA*256 (66.3)203 (78.1)459 (71.1)
LGA*95 (24.6)24 (9.2)119 (18.4)
Birth length, cm51.2 ± 2.751.8 ± 2.451.5 ± 2.6
8-year height, cm131.1 ± 5.6131.8 ± 5.6131.4 ± 5.6
8-year height-SDS0.23 ± 0.960.35 ± 0.960.28 ± 0.96
8-year weight, kg28.2 ± 4.828.5 ± 5.128.4 ± 4.9
8-year weight-SDS0.11 ± 0.930.16 ± 0.950.13 ± 0.94
8-year BMI16.4 ± 2.116.3 ± 2.216.4 ± 2.2
8-year BMI-SDS−0.01 ± 1.0−0.03 ± 1.0−0.01 ± 1.0
  • Data are mean ± SD or n (%).

  • *SGA, small for gestational age (<10th percentile); AGA, appropriate for gestational age (10th–90th percentile); LGA, large for gestational age (>90th percentile).

  • †Children of fathers with type 1 diabetes (T1D) had a mother without T1D or known other diabetes.