TABLE 1

Clinical characteristics of the obese adolescents (N = 38)

Low VAT/(VAT + SAT) ratio (0.08 ± 0.01)High VAT/(VAT + SAT) ratio (0.15 ± 0.04)P valueAdjusted P value (age, race, sex)
n2018
Age (years)15.5 ± 2.814.7 ± 2.40.357
Sex (female/male)14/610/80.357#
Race (C/AA/H)3/10/78/4/60.089#
Tanner stage (II-III/IV-V)6/147/110.873#
Anthropometrics
    BMI (kg/m2)37.0 ± 8.136.6 ± 6.80.8510.636
    % fat40.7 ± 3.638.6 ± 6.00.2620.322
    Lean body mass (kg)56.9 ± 11.555.4 ± 9.90.7170.593
    Waist (cm)105.0 ± 19.0108.1 ± 13.50.5850.732
    Systolic BP115.4 ± 10.9119.9 ± 10.60.2280.235
    Diastolic BP66.6 ± 8.671.8 ± 8.80.0930.031
Body fat distribution
    Abdominal
        Visceral fat (cm2)55.0 ± 26.391.7 ± 31.10.0000.007*
        Subcutaneous fat (cm2)603.7 ± 230.8520.7 ± 181.50.2310.105*
        VAT/(VAT + SAT) ratio0.08 ± 0.010.15 ± 0.040.0000.000*
    Ectopic fat content
        IMCL1.3 ± 0.61.2 ± 0.40.5490.454*
        HFF (%)2.7 ± 6.810.0 ± 12.00.0330.032*
Metabolic measurements
    Fasting glucose (mg/dl)96.6 ± 9.097.1 ± 7.90.8600.888*
    2-h glucose (mg/dl)115.4 ± 18.7139.6 ± 34.00.0130.002*
    AUC-glucose (mg/dl/min)116.6 ± 16.8130.7 ± 27.50.0860.091*
    Fasting insulin (μU/ml)29.0 ± 13.539.8 ± 24.20.1080.218*
    M (kg/LBM · min)11.6 ± 5.68.1 ± 4.80.0460.043*
    Matsuda index (WBISI)2.5 ± 2.11.5 ± 0.90.0810.082*
    Adiponectin (μg/ml)9.3 ± 5.06.5 ± 3.90.0790.037*
    Leptin (ng/ml)31.2 ± 15.134.9 ± 15.70.4890.652*
    Lipids
        HDL (mg/dl)43.8 ± 9.237.0 ± 7.60.0240.163*
        TG (mg/dl)101.2 ± 60.8136.3 ± 81.70.1580.843*
        FFA (μM/l)501.1 ± 152.8615.6 ± 180.70.0720.632*
  • Data are means ± SD.

  • 2;

  • *log transformed; P values <0.05, shown in bold, are statistically significant.