TABLE 1

Selected characteristics of the study population by glycated hemoglobin value at baseline*

Glycated hemoglobin categoryOverallNo history of diabetesDiabetes
Any n = 11,357<5.7% n = 8,0955.7–<6.5% n = 2,035≥6.5% n = 454Any n = 773
Glycated hemoglobin (%)5.7 ± 1.15.3 ± 0.36.0 ± 0.27.4 ± 1.48.1 ± 2.3
Fasting glucose (mg/dl)110.6 ± 35.0100.7 ± 9.8109.9 ± 13.8153.5 ± 52.3191.2 ± 79.3
Fasting glucose category (%)
     <100 mg/dl38.948.620.91.86.7
    100–<126 mg/dl49.950.067.427.115.8
    ≥126 mg/dl11.21.411.771.177.5
Age (years)56.7 ± 2.756.3 ± 5.657.7 ± 5.757.5 ± 5.657.8 ± 5.7
Female/male (%)57.3/42.757.6/42.454.3/45.761.7/38.359.4/40.6
Race/ethnicity (%)
    Black23.915.942.252.242.9
    White76.184.157.847.857.1
Fasting LDL cholesterol (mg/dl)133.0 ± 36.5130.7 ± 35.5138.7 ± 37.4143 ± 39.5136 ± 38.9
Fasting HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)50.4 ± 16.652.1 ± 17.147.4 ± 14.744.0 ± 13.744.7 ± 13.6
Fasting triglycerides (mg/dl)127.0 ± 64.3121.3 ± 61.6132.2 ± 63.3153.8 ± 72.1156.0 ± 75.9
BMI (kg/m2)27.9 ± 5.426.9 ± 4.829.4 ± 5.932.5 ± 6.330.9 ± 6.0
Waist-to-hip ratio0.9 ± 0.10.9 ± 0.10.9 ± 0.11.0 ± 0.11.0 ± 0.1
Hypertension (%)32.726.842.755.755.0
Family history of diabetes (%)23.821.125.933.740.9
Education (%)
    Less than high school20.215.730.033.534.1
    High school or equivalence41.743.238.235.538.6
    College and above38.141.131.731.027.3
Alcohol consumption (%)
    Current57.963.449.340.735.4
    Former19.616.525.627.532.6
    Never22.520.125.131.731.9
Baecke physical activity score2.5 ± 0.82.5 ± 0.82.3 ± 0.72.3 ± 0.72.3 ± 0.7
Smoking status (%)
    Current22.120.429.323.119.5
    Former37.037.835.336.334.4
    Never40.941.835.440.546.1
Retinopathy§
    Any retinopathy (ETDRS ≥14)4.673.023.855.1626.53
    Mild retinopathy (ETDRS 14–20)3.022.663.083.157.04
    Moderate retinopathy (ETDRS 35–43)1.490.340.641.7217.51
    Severe retinopathy (ETDRS ≥47)0.160.010.130.291.99
  • *Plus–minus values are means ± SD. To convert the values for fasting glucose to millimoles per liter, multiply by 0.05551. To convert the values for cholesterol to millimoles per liter, multiply by 0.02586. To convert the values for triglycerides to millimoles per liter, multiply by 0.01129.

  • †BMI is the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters.

  • ‡Baecke's physical activity index is measured with the use of a questionnaire about leisure-time sports activities developed by Baecke et al. (24). The scale ranges from 1 to 4, with a score of 4 indicating the greatest activity.

  • §Retinopathy was assessed at visit 3 in 1993–1995 (approximately 3 years after baseline). After exclusions, n = 9,140 (6,680; 1,557; 349, for glycated hemoglobin categories of <5.7%, 5.7–<6.5%, and ≥6.5%) and 554 individuals with diabetes at visit 2.