TABLE 2

Adjusted HRs (95% CI) for chronic kidney disease and ESRD in the study population, according to diabetes history and glycated hemoglobin or fasting glucose clinical category

Glycated hemoglobinNo diabetesDiabetes
<5.7%5.7–<6.5%≥6.5%Any
Chronic kidney disease
    Model 11.0 (ref)1.31 (1.10–1.55)1.84 (1.39–2.43)*3.57 (3.00–4.25)
    Model 21.0 (ref)1.12 (0.94–1.34)1.39 (1.04–1.85)*2.73 (2.26–3.30)
ESRD
    Model 11.0 (ref)2.00 (1.10–3.61)3.04 (1.31–7.09)*13.02 (7.99–21.23)
    Model 21.0 (ref)1.51 (0.82–2.76)1.98 (0.83–4.73)7.77 (4.56–13.24)
Fasting glucoseNo diabetesDiabetes
<100 mg/dl100–<126 mg/dl≥126 mg/dlAny
Chronic kidney disease
    Model 11.0 (ref)1.11 (0.96–1.30)1.37 (1.04–1.79)*3.47 (2.86–4.20)
    Model 21.0 (ref)0.98 (0.84–1.15)0.99 (0.75–1.32)2.50 (2.03–3.08)
ESRD
    Model 11.0 (ref)1.17 (0.66–2.10)1.31 (0.48–3.55)10.34 (5.93–18.05)
    Model 21.0 (ref)0.89 (0.49–1.61)0.70 (0.25–1.95)5.35 (2.93–9.77)
  • Model 1 was adjusted for age, sex, and race (black or white). Model 2 was adjusted for the variables in model 1 plus low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, log-transformed triglyceride level, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, hypertension (yes or no), family history of diabetes (yes or no), education (less than high school, high school or equivalent, or college or above), alcohol use (currently, formerly, or never), physical activity index score, and smoking status (current smoker, former smoker, or never smoked).

  • *P for trend <0.05 across clinical categories of glycated hemoglobin (<5.7, 5.7–<6.5, ≥6.5%) or fasting glucose (<100, 100–<126, ≥126 mg/dl) in individuals without a diagnosis of diabetes.