TABLE 3

Adjusted ORs (95% CI) for retinopathy† in the study population, according to diabetes history and glycated hemoglobin or fasting glucose clinical category

Glycated hemoglobinNo diabetesDiabetes
<5.7%5.7–<6.5%≥6.5%Any
Retinopathy
    Any (ETDRS ≥14)
        Model 11.0 (ref)0.98 (0.73–1.33)1.25 (0.75–2.07)9.41 (7.38–12.00)
        Model 21.0 (ref)0.84 (0.61–1.14)0.91 (0.54–1.54)7.07 (5.40–9.24)
    Mild (ETDRS 14–20)
        Model 11.0 (ref)0.88 (0.62–1.23)0.85 (0.45–1.60)2.77 (1.91–4.01)
        Model 21.0 (ref)0.77 (0.54–1.08)0.65 (0.34–1.23)2.21 (1.49–3.27)
    Moderate/severe (ETDRS ≥35)
        Model 11.0 (ref)1.76 (0.87–3.57)4.35 (1.83–10.31)*56.96 (35.8–90.58)
        Model 21.0 (ref)1.42 (0.69–2.92)2.91 (1.19–7.11)*38.81 (23.38–64.39)
Fasting glucoseΝο diabetesDiabetes
<100 mg/dl100–<126 mg/dl≥126 mg/dlAny
Retinopathy
    Any (ETDRS ≥14)
        Model 11.0 (ref)1.25 (0.96–1.63)1.71 (1.10–2.64)*11.05 (8.32–14.70)
        Model 21.0 (ref)1.11 (0.84–1.45)1.28 (0.81–2.02)8.22 (6.01–11.25)
    Mild (ETDRS 14–20)
        Model 11.0 (ref)1.22 (0.92–1.62)1.47 (0.90–2.41)3.47 (2.24–5.01)
        Model 21.0 (ref)1.10 (0.83–1.48)1.15 (0.68–1.93)2.69 (1.75–4.14)
    Moderate/severe (ETDRS ≥35)
        Model 11.0 (ref)1.38 (0.69–2.73)3.18 (1.26–8.07)*57.31 (31.67–103.72)
        Model 21.0 (ref)1.14 (0.57–2.29)2.13 (0.82–5.56)36.40 (19.26–68.80)
  • Model 1 was adjusted for age, sex, and race (black or white). Model 2 was adjusted for the variables in model 1 plus low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, log-transformed triglyceride level, BMI, waist-to-hip ratio, hypertension (yes or no), family history of diabetes (yes or no), education (less than high school, high school or equivalent, or college or above), alcohol use (currently, formerly, or never), physical activity index score, and smoking status (current smoker, former smoker, or never smoked).

  • *P for trend <0.05 across clinical categories of glycated hemoglobin (<5.7, 5.7–<6.5, ≥6.5%) or fasting glucose (<100, 100–<126, ≥126 mg/dl) in individuals without a diagnosis of diabetes.

  • †Retinopathy was assessed at visit 3 in 1993–1995 (∼3 years after baseline).