TABLE 1

Baseline characteristics between participants with incident cases of type 2 diabetes and control participants among 718 women

Case subjectsControl subjectsP*
n359359
Age (years)60.3 ± 6.160.3 ± 6.1
Caucasian (%)93.593.5
BMI (kg/m2)30.9 ± 6.126.0 ± 5.0<0.001
Alcohol (g/day)2.62 ± 7.44.19 ± 8.30.008
Current smoking (%)14.513.70.74
Physical activity ≥once/week (%)30.738.70.02
Family history of diabetes (%)48.524.0<0.001
Past postmenopausal hormone use (%)34.029.30.17
Ever oral contraceptive use (%)50.448.00.57
Age at menopause (years)48.0 ± 6.248.0 ± 5.80.79
Years since menopause12.2 ± 8.212.2 ± 8.00.77
Age at menarche <12 (%)25.421.70.23
Age at first pregnancy of ≥6 months, <25 (%)63.457.20.37
Pregnancies ≥5 (%)18.719.90.69
Currently married (%)65.768.20.28
Caffeine-related beverages
    Caffeinated coffee, ≥4 cups/day (%)13.820.90.01
    Decaffeinated coffee, ≥4 cups/day (%)2.34.30.20
    Tea, ≥4 cups/day (%)5.22.90.13
    Caffeine, ≥500 mg/day (%)14.321.10.02
Sex hormones
    SHBG (nmol/l)22.3 ± 13.836.9 ± 17.4<0.001
    Estradiol (pg/ml)24.6 ± 15.920.5 ± 11.3<0.001
    Testosterone (ng/dl)29.8 ± 19.128.9 ± 19.10.49
    DHEAS (μg/dl)91.0 ± 61.392.6 ± 53.70.67
  • Data are means ± SD.

  • *Baseline characteristics were compared between case patients and control subjects using the paired t test for continuous variables and the McNemar test for categorical variables.