TABLE 1

Clinical characteristics of 1,116 EDIC participants with common carotid IMT measurements at years 1, 6, and 12 according to sex and original treatment assignment

DCCT treatment groups
WomenMen
CharacteristicsIntensiveConventionalIntensiveConventional
N267266296287
Demographic, year 6
 Attained age (years)40 ± 7*39 ± 741 ± 741 ± 6
 Attained type 1 duration (years)19 ± 519 ± 519 ± 518 ± 5
 Smoking (%)16.515.318.613.3
Medical, year 6
 Body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 (%)24.3*15.621.818.6
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)118 ± 14117 ± 14122 ± 12123 ± 13
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)74 ± 973 ± 1077 ± 977 ± 8
 Hypertension (%)24.928.630.535.1
Lipids, year 5 or 6
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL)190 ± 33187 ± 34192 ± 38187 ± 33
 HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)63 ± 1662 ± 1451 ± 1351 ± 11
 LDL cholesterol (mg/dL)111 ± 30109 ± 29119 ± 30117 ± 29
 Triglycerides (mg/dL)77 ± 4276 ± 47103 ± 7398 ± 73
 Hyperlipidemia (%)§30.326.336.635.8
AER (mg/24 h), year 5 or 6
 Median (1st, 3rd quartile)10* (6, 17)10 (6, 21)10* (7, 16)12 (7, 29)
 Log (value [mg/24 h])2.3 ± 0.9*2.6 ± 1.32.5 ± 1.1*2.9 ± 1.4
 ≥40 mg/24 h (%)4.6*15.210.7*19.3
AER ≥40 or dialysis/transplant (ever)
 DCCT/EDIC to years 1–227.730.817.6*26.1
 DCCT/EDIC to years 5–630.73822.3*34.8
 DCCT/EDIC to years 11–1237.14430.4*40.4
AER ≥300 or dialysis/transplant (ever)
 DCCT/EDIC to years 1–23634.9
 DCCT/EDIC to years 5–63.0*8.33.7*10.1
 DCCT/EDIC to years 11–124.5*11.75.1*15.7
Weighted mean A1C (%)
 DCCT A1C7.3 ± 0.8*9.1 ± 1.37.2 ± 0.8*8.9 ± 1.1
 DCCT/EDIC to year 17.3 ± 0.8*8.9 ± 1.27.3 ± 0.9*8.8 ± 1.0
 DCCT/EDIC to year 67.6 ± 0.9*8.6 ± 1.17.6 ± 1.0*8.6 ± 1.0
 DCCT/EDIC to year 127.7 ± 1.0*8.3 ± 1.07.7 ± 0.9*8.3 ± 1.0
IMT year 1
 Common carotid IMT (mm)
  Mean ± SD0.601 ± 0.080*0.582 ± 0.0730.633 ± 0.0880.637 ± 0.105
  Median0.5920.5780.6270.625
  Range(0.440–0.846)(0.414–0.787)(0.444–0.922)(0.455–1.065)
IMT year 6
 Common carotid IMT (mm)
  Mean ± SD0.613 ± 0.0870.610 ± 0.0960.647 ± 0.101*0.677 ± 0.141
  Median0.6020.60.6360.646
  Range(0.411–0.928)(0.417–1.121)(0.440–1.133)(0.425–1.772)
  • Data are means ± SD unless noted otherwise.

  • IMT, common intima-media thickness.

  • *P < 0.05 by Wilcoxon rank-sum test for continuing variables and χ2 test for categorical variables comparing conventional and intensive treatment.

  • †Hypertension was defined by a systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg, a diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg, documented hypertension, or the use of antihypertensive agents.

  • ‡Renal function and lipid levels were determined from the biennial evaluation conducted at year 5 or 6 of the EDIC study.

  • §Hyperlipidemia was defined by an LDL cholesterol level ≥130 mg/dL or the use of lipid-lowering agents (physicians were alerted to the presence of hyperlipidemia during the DCCT and the EDIC study).