TABLE 4

Multivariate risk factor models* for progression of common IMT years 1 to 6 and 6 to 12

Change in carotid IMT (mm)
Years 1 to 6Years 6 to 12
Risk factor (years 1 or 6)β-coefficientPβ-coefficientP
Model R20.510.57
Attained age (years)0.0032 ± 0.0004<0.00010.0019 ± 0.00050.0003
Sex (male vs. female)0.0152 ± 0.00550.00530.0144 ± 0.00630.0227
Cohort (secondary vs. primary)0.0064 ± 0.00500.20280.0122 ± 0.00620.0469
Common IMT (mm)0.6847 ± 0.0343<0.00010.8282 ± 0.0328<0.0001
Treatment group (intensive vs. conventional)−0.0199 ± 0.0051<0.00010.0024 ± 0.00610.6921
Currently smoking (yes vs. no)0.0173 ± 0.00660.00880.0288 ± 0.00840.0006
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)0.0002 ± 0.00030.4860.0006 ± 0.00030.0693
Body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 (yes vs. no)0.0101 ± 0.00760.18340.0224 ± 0.00780.0043
Systolic blood pressure* sex interaction0.0010 ± 0.00040.02340.0014 ± 0.00050.0040
 Male vs. female at 100 mmHg−0.0041 ± 0.00870.6384−0.0126 ± 0.01130.2642
 Male vs. female at 110 mmHg0.0056 ± 0.00590.34960.0009 ± 0.00790.9094
 Male vs. female at 120 mmHg0.0152 ± 0.00540.00530.0144 ± 0.00630.0227
 Male vs. female at 130 mmHg0.0249 ± 0.00780.00140.0280 ± 0.00790.0004
 Male vs. female at 140 mmHg0.0346 ± 0.01130.00230.0415 ± 0.01130.0003
Overall effect
 Sexdf = 20.0061df = 20.0012
 Systolic blood pressuredf = 20.0008df = 2<0.0001
  • *Separate multiple linear regression models for the change in IMT over each period adjusted for readers and machine devices. In additional models, LDL, HDL, and total cholesterol were not significantly associated with change in IMT over either period.

  • †The model for IMT progression from years 1 to 6 was adjusted for risk factors evaluated or measured at EDIC year 1; the model for progression from years 6 to 12 was adjusted for factors evaluated or measured at EDIC year 6.

  • ‡Coefficient (estimated ± SE) is the mm change in IMT progression per unit increase in the covariate, or the difference between covariate categories as stated.