TABLE 2

Adipokines at 3 years postpartum, by breastfeeding duration category: predicted values* from linear regression models

nMonths of lactationP
None>0 to <33 to <66 to <12≥12
Mean (95% CI)Mean (95% CI)Mean (95% CI)Mean (95% CI)Mean (95% CI)
Leptin (ng/mL) (n)6992116138149
 Unadjusted56411.2 (9.7–12.6)10.3 (9.0–11.5)8.9 (7.8–10.0)8.3 (7.3–9.4)7.6 (6.6–8.6)0.0002
 Multivariable adjusted5648.9 (7.6–10.1)8.0 (6.8–9.1)7.8 (6.7–8.9)7.8 (6.8–8.8)7.8 (6.7–8.8)0.45
Adiponectin (μg/mL) (n)7092116139149
 Unadjusted56619.0 (17.0–21.0)20.1 (18.4–21.9)20.9 (19.4–22.5)20.0 (18.6– 21.5)20.2 (18.8–21.6)0.70
 Multivariable adjusted56621.2 (18.8–23.5)22.9 (20.6–25.1)22.8 (20.7–24.9)20.9 (19.1–22.7)20.7 (18.8–22.6)0.11
Ghrelin (pg/mL) (n)1730394051
 Unadjusted177574.7 (429.8–719.5)663.8 (554.8–772.8)704.1 (608.4–799.7)794.0 (699.5–888.4)819.7 (736.0–903.3)0.02
 Multivariable adjusted177714.8 (557.3–872.3)730.2 (595.0–865.3)779.9 (669.1–890.7)845.8 (745.2–946.5)810.5 (696.3–924.6)0.32
PYY (pg/mL) (n)1730394051
 Unadjusted17753.4 (45.8–62.3)56.1 (50.0–63.0)56.0 (50.6–62.0)63.1 (57.1–69.7)61.0 (55.8–66.7)0.24
 Multivariable adjusted17751.5 (42.4–62.7)56.2 (47.5–66.4)56.5 (49.1–65.0)63.0 (55.6–71.3)60.0 (52.1–69.1)0.24
  • Data from 570 participants in Project Viva who presented for follow-up at 3 years postpartum without an intervening birth.

  • *For the multivariate adjusted model, data presented are mean predicted values for a participant with a prepregnancy BMI of 25.1 kg/m2, the mean for the study population, modeled using a three-knot quadratic spline model for BMI. The participant was a white woman aged 35–40 years, has two children, has no parental history of diabetes, had normal glucose tolerance, is a nonsmoker, and gained 15 kg during the index pregnancy.

  • †Partial F test P values for differences among categories.

  • ‡Results presented for PYY are geometric means. Because this outcome was not normally distributed, it was modeled on the log scale. Predicted values are exponentiated for presentation to improve interpretability.