TABLE 4

Adipokine levels at 3 years postpartum, comparing women who never breastfed, whose breastfeeding was curtailed, or who breastfed successfully:* predicted values from linear regression models

nNever breastfedCurtailed breastfeeding, problems with milk supply*Curtailed breastfeeding, no problems with milk supply*Successful breastfeeding*P
Leptin (ng/mL) (n)696745383
 Unadjusted56411.2 (9.7–12.6)§7.9 (6.4–9.3)9.0 (7.2–10.8)8.7 (8.1–9.3)<0.01
 Multivariable adjusted5648.9 (7.6–10.1)§6.8 (5.6–8.1)7.5 (6.0–9.0)8.0 (7.1–8.8)§0.05
Adiponectin (μg/mL) (n)706745384
 Unadjusted56619.0 (17.0–21.0)21.3 (19.2–23.3)19.9 (17.4–22.4)20.2 (19.4–21.1)0.50
 Multivariable adjusted56620.9 (18.6–23.3)22.7 (20.3–25.1)21.3 (18.5–24.1)21.2 (19.7–22.8)0.58
Ghrelin (pg/mL) (n)172320117
 Unadjusted177574.7 (427.9–721.5)718.9 (592.7–845.1)682.2 (546.8–817.5)775.7 (719.8–831.6)0.07
 Multivariable adjusted177721.8 (566.6–877.1)774.0 (645.4–902.5)713.4 (568.5–858.3)824.4 (736.3–912.4)0.18
PYY (pg/mL) (n)172321116
 Unadjusted17753.4 (45.7–62.4)57.5 (50.4–65.7)56.5 (49.2–65.0)60.2 (56.7–63.9)0.48
 Multivariable adjusted17752.3 (43.0–63.5)57.0 (48.5–67.0)58.8 (49.1–70.3)60.9 (54.5–68.0)0.33
  • Data from 570 participants in Project Viva who presented for follow-up at 3 years postpartum without an intervening birth.

  • *We used data on mothers’ intended duration of breastfeeding, as reported at 28 weeks of pregnancy to define curtailed breastfeeding as either 1) weaning prior to 3 months among women who planned to breastfeed for more than 3 months or 2) introduction of formula prior to 3 months among women who planned to breastfeed exclusively for at least 3 months. At the 6-month interview, mothers who had weaned or were supplementing identified reasons for introducing formula or weaning from a structured list. We classified women as having problems with milk supply if they endorsed any of the following: “I wasn’t producing enough breast milk to satisfy my baby,” “I had difficulty or didn’t like pumping breast milk,” or “My baby was not gaining enough weight with breastfeeding.”

  • †For the multivariate-adjusted model, data presented are mean predicted values for a participant with a prepregnancy BMI of 25.1 kg/m2, the mean for the study population, modeled using a three-knot quadratic spline model for BMI. This participant was a white woman aged 35–40 years, has two children, has no parental history of diabetes, had normal glucose tolerance, is a nonsmoker, and gained 15 kg during the index pregnancy.

  • ‡Partial F test P values for differences among categories.

  • §P < 0.05 vs. curtailed breastfeeding problems with supply group.

  • P < 0.05, vs. successful breastfeeding group.

  • ¶Results presented for PYY are geometric means. Because this outcome was not normally distributed, it was modeled on the log scale. Predicted values are exponentiated for presentation to improve interpretability.